25 Major Scientific Achievements of the 1950s: Can We Top Them?

Scientific breakthroughs in the 1950s at a time when the U.S. actively pursued and funded R&D technology

We're on the cusp of a major push in scientific research. Much like the 1950s, our government is determined to pour more money and more resources into science so we can push ahead. This time, we're not in a Space race, but a race to mitigate Global Warming. Anybody who tells you different is fibbing. The only way to get out of this mess (or at least alleviate some of it) is to rely on science to invent the technologies that can help us.

Recently, President Obama promised the nation's scientists he would step up governmental and private funding for new Research and Development (R&D) projects, reversing its critical decline over the past 25 years. Citing America's lagging role as a global leader in science and technology; the President said, we are dangerously close to following seriously behind other countries like India and China.

Pointing to the 1950s as America's "high-water mark" in funding science research, the President promised to spend more than $21.5 billion on Science from the 2009 Stimulus Package - particularly for projects addressing renewable energy.

He said another goal was to make research and experiment tax credits permanent in the 2010 budget. While it is clear that President Obama strongly believes in the promise and potential of science, it is less clear whether Congress and the public supports a larger funding initiative for R&D. 

In the 1950s, shortly after WWII, and the public awareness of the role science played in ending the War, it was a different story. In 1958, (thanks to both public and private sources) the U.S spent $10 billion on science technology (far more than $21.5 billion in today's dollars). There was widespread public enthusiasm and support for Science - especially as the U.S. raced into space, determined to put the first man on the moon (which took until the 1960s).

In case you've forgotten the major science breakthroughs in the 1950s (or maybe never even knew), here's a list of some of the important scientific achievements, (listed in chronological order; some more vitally important than others). These achievements are a representative sampling of some of the successful technology and science discovered; many of these discoveries have had a major impact on our lives.

1950-52:

1. First electric power from U.S. reactor.

2. First U.S. thermonuclear explosion.

3. Introduction of Coast-to-coast TV.

4. Large electronic computer delivered to the Bureau of Census.

5. Automation of the auto industry begins.

6. Bubble chamber for tracking atomic particles created.

7. Discovery of the brain's arousal system.

8. Heart-lung machine first used on a human.

1953-54

9. Proposed structure of DNA announced.

10. Solar batteries unveiled.

11. Tranquilizers introduced.

12. Introduction of both color and wide-screen TVs.

13. Nike missile revealed.

14. First supersonic flight by a military aircraft.

15. Discovery of reward center in the brain.

1955-56

16. vertical take-off and landing of jet aircraft.

17. Experimental use of oral contraceptives.

18. Mass use of Salk polio vaccine.

19. All-transistor radios introduced.

Wikimedia public domain

20. Transatlantic telephone cable introduced.

21. Nuclear-powered submarines unveiled.

1957-58

22. Discovery of cold fusion.

23. Synthetic diamonds produced.

24, First U.S. satellites and ICBM unveiled.

25. Stereo record technology developed.

After WWII, a good deal of the money spent on scientific research went to the military, but the military's discoveries carried over to civilian life and to other branches of science.  Military funding for science, in fact, helped develop computer engineering and technologies leading to digital computing. Because it was the military complex's scientific research that created the computing culture, some say it retains its "Cold War military perspective."

Regardless of that philosophy, computer science had a "profound, earth-shaking effect" on day-to-day living, business, psychology, cognitive science and neuroscience, to name a few. The funding of military scientific research also found its way into earth sciences: geodesy, oceanography and seismology (much of this now contributing to our understanding of Global Warming).

Biological sciences also grew under military funding, but less directly than other sciences that might have military (defense) applications. Private foundation funding was an important source of R&D in biological and medical research in the 1950-60s. Although military-driven and funded science is still creating and producing high-tech products (take the pilot-less drones, for example and the huge advances in development of prosthetics for amputees, as well as newly funded, ongoing research to enable communication via brain wave technology), the emphasis now may be less on military-funded research and more on scientists working to mitigate or reverse the devastating effects of Global Warming.

Psychic Analysis: The new Science race is on - just like the 1950s - but this time, the prize is not to conquer space, but to conquer pollution, carbon emissions, drought and the rapid extinction of many of life's animal species. Every time we see more wild fires spreading across the world; every time another glacier melts; every time another species is determined endangered or nearly extinct, we are hearing a drum beating. There are still far too many people for whom this drum beat is inaudible.

The woes of the troubled economy and the troubled climate are intertwined. One solution is this:  work on fixing one, and you help fix the other. Putting the economy first, however, is putting the cart before the horse. It doesn't take a psychic to see the horse is stumbling and in danger of falling and tipping over the cart, unless we radically change our priorities and literally yell and stomp our feet, demanding more funding for scientific research. Time is of the essence. With thanks to Fortune Magazine, January, 1959, AFP, and multiple related histories researched from the internet.

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Thank You Messages for Lecturers/Teachers

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Here is a collection of some splendid thank you messages that you can send to your lecturers or teacher. Read on to find the perfect thank you message for your dear lecturer and teacher.

1 Thank you for being such a good lecturer. You have educated me countless lessons in academic as well as lessons in life as well! I really value you in so many ways because without having you my dear teacher, I’m nothing!

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5 Good day to you teacher (name)! This message is to simply thank you! You enlighten me through your teachings! I will always be thankful to you for making my future brighter. Thank you and indeed you are amazing!

6 Hello teacher (name)! You are the best! Just wanna say thank you for becoming a great lecturer for me! Every day is a meaningful day because of you! Thank you!

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8 Thank you my teacher! I always learn from you that makes me a better person almost every single day. You are great and a wonderful person to look up to. Thank you for everything and I hope this simple thank you message from me, makes you feel happy and overwhelmed. God bless you more teacher (name)!

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10 I may not express this at all times. Yet, I truly mean it when I say thank you teacher for the countless things you have done for us.

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success we might have achieved in our future it’s because you have been a wonderful teacher for us. Thank you again!

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Advantages of School Field Trips

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Exposing students to an actual and hands-on learning experience like a school field trip is an effective method of teaching. It is effective in a sense that it is entirely a different experience and new approach for children to acquire knowledge while having fun and relaxation at the same time.  Here are the advantages of having a school field trip:

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How to Pass the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET)

Learn a few tips on how to pass the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET). Prepare for the LET with the help of these tips.

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I took the LET in October 2009—and PASSED! Read about my personal experience here.

Here are some tips and tricks that can help you review, prepare and even pass!

  • Familiarize yourself with the LET’s table of specifications and point system. The table of specifications, as every teacher should know, identifies the topics covered by a test and how much weight each topic is given. Every board exam has one. A copy of the LET coverage (updated November 2011) is included in the “kit” the PRC gave you after your application. The general distribution of items is: General Education, 150 items; Professional Education, 150 items; Major or Specialization, 150 items (as of April 2011, thanks to update from Jhay_Cee). Your score won’t be based on the raw score but on this percentage distribution: General Education, 20%; Professional Education, 40%; Major or Specialization, 40%. The passing rate is 75%, but you also need to get 50% in all three areas. Given all those numbers, you can plan out your approach to achieving the passing rate!
  • Identify your strengths and weaknesses. So you hate Math and love Literature. Knowing your strong points and waterloos will help you identify topics to prioritize and spend more time in during your review. Because of the rating system, it’s crucial you score high in all three areas. Even if you get a perfect score in your specialization, you still need to correctly answer Math and Statistics questions to pass the other two areas.
  • Set a study schedule. Unless you’re one of those people who perform better when cramming, and are sure they will pass the exam without much effort, then you need to set a study schedule. If you’re already teaching or working, this will help you manage your time. Make a timetable with dates and time frames, and topics you plan to study. Some review centers start as early as four months before the exam. Assess your capacity and situation if you need more or less time than that.
  • Keep a healthy body for a healthy mind. In order for your brain to be on tiptop shape, your body has to be in excellent shape. Eat lots of vegetables and fruits, especially berries, nuts and cruciferous veggies like broccoli. Choose fish over pork. Always stay hydrated, too, and get ample sleep time. Exercise! Take a stroll every day, or do stretches while at work. Physical activity pumps oxygen-rich blood into the brain, firing up your neurons.
  • Answer sample tests and reviewers. Lots of them. The LET is a board exam, and like all board exams, it has a test bank or inventory of questions. This means that more often than not, a lot of test items have already appeared in past examinations, and some appear in every examination. There are a lot of reviewers you can choose from, but I suggest picking those by Philippine Normal University (PNU) professors. (They’re the ones who draft the test questions) Answering sample tests, complete with answer sheets, also serves as practice for you in test-taking especially in terms of managing your time and in shading circles.
  • Ask for help. Maybe you’re a fresh graduate, maybe you’ve been teaching for some years already. No matter, reviewing is always much easier and more fun when you have someone to help you. That someone could be a co-teacher, a department head, a former professor or an entire class of reviewees. The point is, if you come across a topic you can’t put your finger on, or an interpretation you need to clarify, someone’s there to answer your questions. This will save you some research time, and earn you more tips and information, too.
  • Make a cheat sheet. I’m not talking about a cheater's sheet or kodigo, of course. With all the information you need to remember, and all the addenda you have written on your notebooks, sometimes the most basic can get lost. Write down all your mnemonics, definitions and formula on small-sized paper or index cards. Bring your cheat sheet along with you wherever you go, so you can easily take a peek for a quick review.
  • Exercise your HOTS. With 600 questions, you might be tempted to think that the best way to go is through memorization. But the LET is also designed to test your HOTS—higher order thinking skills. There are test questions that will require your powers of analysis. Practice analyzing quotations and short situational studies and drawing generalizations from your analysis. For Professional Education where majority of the questions are on learning theories, mnemonics won’t be enough. To make analysis easier, choose one situation or object, and apply the theories on that. When you encounter a question on a theory, all you’ll have to do is think of that situation or object. Example: If a teacher saw a student sleeping in class, what would she do if she believes in (insert philosophy of education)?
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  • On exam day itself—stay calm! Why is it that even graduates from reputable schools sometimes fail the LET? Maybe they panicked or they were overconfident. Moderation is the key, so feel confident about the things you studied and stay calm even if you don’t know the answer to the very first question. Read the question carefully and look at all the options before answering. Always check the time to make sure you have enough time to answer all questions. And also, check if you’re shading the right circle under the right number.

*photo by Arjun Kartha

Precautionary Measures Before, During, and After Volcanic Eruptions

Volcanic eruptions have early warning signs that help residents around a volcano prepare before the actual eruptions occur.

Volcanic eruptions happen with early warnings unlike earthquakes that are sudden. There are early warning signs before a volcano erupts so there is at least time for residents around the volcano to prepare before the actual eruption occurs. People should know that before a volcano erupts there are warning signs such as rumbling sounds, continuous emissions of steam, increasing temperature around the volcano that results to withering of plants around and unusual behaviors of animals and earthquakes.

There are dangers that volcanic eruptions pose to people so it is important that they know how to handle situations before, during and after volcanic eruptions to avoid serious problems. The government has agencies that take care of reporting information about a certain volcano and its activities in order for people to be warned and avoid unpleasant incidents from happening.

Here are precautionary measures before volcanic eruptions:

1. Each one should be aware of the dangers that volcanic eruptions pose to lives and be prepared to face whatever circumstances the eruption may bring.

2. Prepare all necessary things to bring once evacuation is needed. Those in danger zones are warned when to evacuate. Once given the signal refrain from saying you will be all right. Refusing to evacuate will pose more serious problems.

3. Store as much food, water, light sources and batteries that are very useful in case of emergency.

4. Volcanic eruptions have ash falls so be prepared for masks or anything to cover nose and mouth.

5. Prioritize the safety of kids before other things. If you have relatives or friends who are far from the volcano, take your children there until such time that your place is safe.

Here are precautionary measures during volcanic eruptions:

1. Avoid all low-lying places because lava flows and mudflows are more likely to pass here.

2. Seek cover in case of ash falls rock falls.

3. Use masks and cover your mouth and nose to avoid breathing in ashes.

4. If you are inside a house; close all doors and windows to avoid ashes from getting inside.

5. Always stay indoors.

6. Stay in the evacuation center until further instructions. Do not attempt to leave the place unless told to do.

7. Keep a watchful eye on the kids because they might be tempted to go out and see what’s going on outside.

Here are precautionary measures after volcanic eruptions:

1. Go back to your house but leave the kids behind someone who can take care of them while you check your house.

2. Clean everything around and check all damages incurred.

3. Use masks while cleaning ash and other debris.

4. Wait for further announcements related to the volcano activities.

5. Make sure that your house is still safe for all of you.

Volcanic eruptions could be handled easier than earthquakes because there are early signs before the actual eruption so you are already prepared at the time of eruption. Always take precautionary measures in order to avoid serious problems.

A Teacher's Guide: Tips on Writing an Organized Five Paragraph Essay

As a teacher of elementary and middle school students, one hurdle is teaching the skills to write an organized five paragraph essay. While there are many different methods to choose from, there is a simple formula that can be applied every time.

As a teacher of elementary and middle school students, one hurdle is teaching the skills to write an organized five paragraph essay.  While there are many different methods to choose from, there is a simple formula that can be applied every time.  By creating a strong thesis statement, using a graphic organizer, and implementing the introduction-body-conclusion format, your students can produce a well written five paragraph essay for any writing assignment.

The Thesis Statement is the backbone of any well written essay. As defined by Webster's Online Dictionary; "A thesis statement is the main point that is to be proven by an essay. Usually backed up by examples, the thesis statement is the theme of that whole piece."  By dividing the thesis statement into three parts, you have effectively mapped out the three body paragraphs of the essay.  This is often referred to as a 'three-prong' thesis statement.  Each 'prong' or point mentioned in the thesis identifies the the topic sentence of one of the three body paragraphs.  For example; If you are writing about soccer, your thesis statement might read like this: 'Commitment, strategy, and team work are important elements of a winning soccer team.' With this one sentence, you have told the reader that the main ideas of your body paragraphs are commitment to the sport, strategy of the game, and the importance of team work.

Once you have established a strong thesis statement, it is important to organize your thoughts and any supporting information.  One of the most effective ways to do this is by using a graphic organizer.  A good graphic organizer is simple yet effective, providing space for the writer to list all the facts relevant to their chosen topic.  It provides a visual map to follow while writing the final essay.  The most effective graphic organizers use shapes such as circles or squares, connected with lines to show the flow of information.  It is important to remember that many students will need multiple copies of the graphic organizer as mistakes will be made.  In addition to the thesis statement, and supporting details, the graphic organizer should help to organize the opening and closing thoughts.  Remember that people usually remember the first and last thing that they read from any document. 

As the author, it is important to grab the reader's attention with a strong attention getter or 'hook'.  The most common attention getter is the question.  'Have you ever wondered what it takes to be a valued player on an amazing soccer team?'  Another effective way to get the readers attention is to create a mental image that the reader can become part of.  'Crisp morning air whipped at my face, the smell of fresh cut grass in the air.  Focus!  Focus!  Tom takes the ball.  He is dribbling toward me, his feet moving fast.  I center myself, ready and waiting.  He passes!  With one swift kick, I send the ball sailing passed the goalie to score the first point of the game!'  The introduction of any writing assignment should begin with an attention getter, and once the reader's interest has been piqued, it is important to keep it.  The introduction should tell the reader some basic information about the topic and then finish with the thesis statement. The following body paragraphs should give facts to support the three main points mentioned in the thesis statement.  One paragraph dedicated to each point will create the three necessary body paragraphs.  Each body paragraph should have a topic sentence, at least three supporting facts or details, and a closing sentence.  The final paragraph of the essay is the conclusion.  This is where you need to 'sum up' the information given in the body.  One way to create a solid conclusion is to restate what is said in the introduction.  Take the basic information, and even the thesis statement, and rewrite it.  Be sure to include reasons why the information is important or helpful.  Make the reader feel that their time was well spent.  After completing the written assignment, it is important to remember to edit, edit, edit!  A well written essay can be ruined by too many mistakes in grammar and sentence structure. 

As a teacher, is is important to give students the strongest foundation for writing possible.  Using the simple formula based on the three-prong thesis statement will give them a pattern to use with any writing assignment.  By teaching them to use a graphic organizer to organize their thoughts and information before writing, the process becomes much easier.  And, of course, following the standard five paragraph format will ensure that they are prepared for assignments throughout their education.

Sample Five Paragraph - Graphic Organizer:

K+12 Education in the Philippines

Review of the newly implemented K+12 Education in the Philippines.

The Enhanced K+12 Basic Education Program in the Philippines has been officially started. It has been initiated by the Aquino administration where students will have to undergo a new system of education.

This program will require all incoming students to enroll into two more years of basic education. Thus, the K+12 System will basically include the Universal kindergarten, 6 years of elementary, 4 years of junior high school with an additional 2 years for senior high school.

Moreover, the program aims to uplift the quality of education in the Philippines in order for graduates to be easily employed. The program also aims to meet the standards required for professionals who would want to work abroad.

Most importantly, the system aims to fully enhance and develop the students in order for them to be well-prepared especially in emotional and cognitive aspects. Through this, graduates will be able to face the pressures of their future workplace.

However, not all are in favor of the K+12 Education. There are students complaining of the additional years and there are parents who are not in favor of the additional expenses. But indeed, it is an undeniable fact that additional years in the education system will really require more budgets not just from the government but from the parents as well.

Aside from this, students will need additional classrooms, school supplies and facilities. The program would need more qualified teachers as well.

I personally believe that the K+12 Education in the Philippines would uplift the quality of lifestyle of the Filipino people. But, this could not be done without being prepared. And since the program has already been implemented, what is more important now is for students to do their best and study despite of the lack of facilities. Nothing is impossible when we persist.

As for teachers, continue to teach with love and love what you teach despites of your own personal triumphs and economic crisis. Always remember that the future of the students depends upon you.

As for the parents who have been doing their best in pursuing their child’s education, remember that the program aims what’s best for your children. It will help your children to become globally competitive and if your children will succeed, you will also succeed.

There may be a lot of factors to consider for the K+12 Education to succeed. But as long as we open our minds to change and we will take it on a positive way, we will definitely attain our most-aspired educational standards which will play a great role in our country’s development and will therefore, uplift us from poverty.

Importance of School Uniforms

School uniforms promote student's loyalty and reduce students tendency to be violent. Without school uniform, students may form gangs and identify their group with same color clothes. Gang members would then victimize wealthy students. This violence can be prevented if all students identify themselves as one by wearing the same school uniform.

Today, all over social media and the news, there are many news stories about kid’s getting into trouble about what they are wearing to school and protesting their suspensions because of what they are wearing.

Boys getting into trouble for wearing jeans that are hanging too low are that are too baggy. Girls getting in trouble for wearing clothes that are a little to sexual or provocative.

These types of stories generate a great deal of comments, pro and con. But for the most part, the general consensus is that these kids do not seem to understand that there are rules and dress codes that they must follow. In one case, a sixth grade girl protested that she had to go home and change because of what she wearing. Most comments on social media stated that if she can’t learn to follow the rules and dress codes in elementary school, how can she function in the real work when she looks for and gets a job.

Reasons why wearing of school uniforms are important for students:

  • School uniforms are made compulsory for all students since it helps lessen social conflicts within the school. This is so as not all students can keep up with the latest trends in fashion. So, if you don’t belong in the group when it comes to fashion, you often become the subject of ridicule and mockery obviously because other students see you as an outcast who doesn’t fit in. If you are in this situation, it can badly affect your self-esteem and can give rise to many insecurities. But with school uniform, incidents like this can be prevented.
  • School uniforms promote students’ loyalty and reduces students tendency to be violent. Without school uniform, students may form gangs and identify their group with same color clothes. Gang members would then victimize wealthy students. This violence can be prevented if all students identify themselves as one by wearing the same school uniform. With school uniform, students will have a sense of oneness and it will likewise enhance school loyalty. Wearing of school uniform is really important for it gives students the feeling that they all belong in one community.
  • School uniforms lessen students clothing expenses for their day to day use. It is also beneficial for parents for it enables them to save extra cash. Just one time spending for school uniforms and that’s it. Whereas, if parents have to spend for latest fashion clothes for their children’s day to day attire in school,  it can cost them a lot of money.
  • School uniform promotes effective learning for all students. Students’ concentration will be focused more on their education rather than their wardrobes.  If students are allowed to wear civilian clothes, they will be more eager, concerned and excited on what clothes to wear to make them stand out at school. This will also distract their learning process for their minds will be occupied with the thought of whether their opposite sex will admire the way they dress up. Thus, school uniform is important for it creates an effective learning atmosphere.
  • Wearing of school uniforms also prepare students for their future career. If they get employed in big companies, naturally they have to wear corporate and formal attires. With this, it will be easy for them to adjust since they are used to wear formal uniforms when they were in school.

School Uniform Conclusion

As you can see, having school uniforms can solve many problems for kids, teachers, the administrators and the schools. No competition for what to wear, no gang colors, no feeling bad if a child cannot afford the latest fashions. When a child is not worried about what they are wearing and competing with their friends, they can concentrate on school and lessons.

Who is against school uniforms, the teen clothing companies. They make a great deal of money by selling all kinds of clothing and name brand shoes to teens for the school year. Many schools have rules about what to wear and what not to wear, but as I mentioned above, kids are protesting these rules.

There have been numerous stories circulating on Facebook and other social media web sites with kids as young as elementary school, complaining that they should be allowed to wear what they want. Not only girls, but also the guys want to be able to wear the low baggy pants and their favorite team’s shirts. But this has been found to cause problems, which is exactly why a school uniform could solve all of these disputes, arguments and problems.  

Even if a school does not have their own uniforms, a dress code is very helpful and needs to be followed by all students and abided by parents. Rules are rules and the more children learn about following the dress code rules, the better off they will be once they get to the real world and the work force.

The Development of the Educational System in the Philippines

The educational system in the Philippines had undergone various stages of development. These stages of educational evolution can be traced way back from the Pre-Spanish period, to the Spanish Period, to the American period, to the Commonwealth and the Japanese period going to the present.

The educational system in the Philippines had undergone various stages of development. These stages of educational evolution can be traced way back from the Pre-Spanish period, to the Spanish Period, to the American period, to the Commonwealth and the Japanese period going to the present.

There is no definite information about the system of education in the Philippines during the Pre-Spanish period.

According to the history, the Philippine education had manifested in the culture of the people. However, there are no definite records that were available showing the types of schools that were established by the natives, as well as on the subjects or methods that they used.

There were Written and Oral literatures but all of the records that were written were accordingly destroyed by the Spanish colonizers; this was because they believed that those written records in literature were works of devils.

Some of the Oral literatures have been preserved until today and these are in the forms of proverbs, songs, maxims, epics, as well as in the forms of various tales and religious or criminological codes. There were also little knowledge in astronomy and engineering.

During the Spanish period, an educational decree was passed in an attempt to reform the educational system in the Philippines. Included in the decree are the establishments of complete secondary as well as collegiate levels, as well as the establishment of teacher-training institutions.

During the American period, a system of public education was established. The system was patterned after the American educational system. The Colleges and Universities that were organized during the time of the Spanish were continued. The programs of studies were revised; adapting the changes of time.

During the Commonwealth period and Japanese occupation, the curricula in the elementary as well as in the secondary schools were revised. Among of developments in education during the Commonwealth period were the re-orientation of educational plans and policies to carry out the educational mandate of the constitution, the revision of the elementary and secondary school curricula to carry out the objectives of education embodied in the constitution and many more.

Today, the Philippine education is patterned from the state school system of the United States. The education establishments comprised of the private schools that are owned and manage by private individuals or corporations and the public schools that are owned and manage by the state.

According to the history, the Philippine education evolves from its simple beginning and was shaped by foreign influences.