Could Another Carrington Event Destroy Our Economy?
Could another Carrington Event destroy the economy or worse, destroy civilization, as we know it today. The Carrington Event was nothing more than a solar flare that hit the Earth in 1859. It just happened to be the strongest solar flare to possibly ever hit the planet and the strongest seen and recorded.
On the morning of September 1, 1859, EnglandÃƒÂ¢Ã‚Â€Ã‚Â™s foremost solar astronomer, Richard Carrington observed on the sun a large area of sunspots when suddenly there was a large flash over the sunspots. Within 60 seconds the flash had already started to dissipate. Early the next morning, reports of the northern lights (Aurora Borealis) were reported to be so bright that people could read the newspaper as if it were daylight. The brilliant auroras were reported much further south than usual in places like Cuba, the Bahamas, Hawaii and El Salvador in Central America.
The northern lights were unusual enough but then worldwide telegraph systems started going out. Telegraph operators were being shocked unconscious and the flying sparks from the telegraph machines were setting the papers and their machines on fire. When the telegraph operators disconnected their machines from the batteries, there were still sparks flying. This is because the power of solar flares induced electricity into the lines that carried the telegraph signals from one telegraph station to the next. This became known as the Carrington Event.
Since that time astronomers have been studying the sun and its solar flares, and have classified them as to their strength of magnitude much like we do hurricanes. We have satellites that constantly monitor the sun for any signs of the next big flare and scientists issue solar forecast and storm warnings. Solar flares are classified by brightness at their X-ray wavelengths.
X-class is the largest flare.
M-class is a medium sized solar flare.
C-class is the smallest of the flares.
Numbers are attached which are logarithmic, powers of 10. A class X-4 flare is more than 10 times more energetic than a class X-3 flare would be.
More recent large flares and their effects were,
March 13, 1989, disrupted power in Quebec blacking out 6 million people for 9 hours. Like the Carrington Event, this also induced current into the lines, causing power surges that melted a transformer in New Jersey. There were also 200 other incidents reported on the North American power grid including a nuclear power plant in New Jersey.
May 1998, a solar flare disabled the PanAmSat's Galaxy IV satellite and disrupted ATM machines, credit card machines, weather tracking services and 80% of all pagers in the United States.
November 4, 2003, the largest solar flare ever measured occurred. The x-rays from this storm were so powerful that it overloaded the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) that was measuring the sun, so scientists had to use other means to measure the flare. They rated it at X-28.
Before this flare, the strongest ever measured were X-20 flares on April 2, 2001 and August 16, 1989. Had these flares been pointing at the Earth, the damage to the satellites and power systems could have been substantial. If the flare isnÃƒÂ¢Ã‚Â€Ã‚Â™t pointing at Earth, then most of the energy goes by the Earth, which is a good thing for us.
What could happen today if another solar flare the size of the 1859 Carrington Event were to hit the planet? According to a report by the National Academy of Science (NAS) it could induce electrical currents that would knock out at least 300 main transformers cutting off power to 130 million people, all within 90 seconds. What would this do to our economy.
Solar storms also cause the upper atmosphere to expand or swell which causes the orbiting satellites to drag in the expanded atmosphere. This can pull a satellite out of its orbit, fail or actually cause satellites to burn up in the atmosphere.
The power grids of the United States and other countries are like large antennas, picking up stray signals. Most of these signals do not cause any harm since they are small and taken to ground or dealt with properly. When a large solar flare occurs the geomagnetic currents hit the earth and the power lines pick them up. This is called geomagnetically induced currents (GIC). A major solar storm can overwhelm the system. The solar storm of 1989 that blacked out Quebec took only 90 seconds from the initial event to a complete blackout. This causes a cascading affect that if severe enough can cascade beyond the affecting power company. Our power grid is so interconnected today, that a failure in one area can cascade to numerous other areas quickly.
A current report by the NAS warns that if a similar event occurred today, it could cause $1 to $2 trillion dollars in damage to the power systems, technological infrastructure andÃƒÂ‚Ã‚Â economyÃƒÂ‚Ã‚Â and take between four to ten years for a complete recovery. Some areas could be without power for years. Its not just the lights, but electricity controls everything from the water supply, phone service, banking and finance, internet and fuel pipelines to name a few. According to the NAS report, the damage to the US economy in the first year alone would be at least $2 trillion.
The main agency for watching the sun is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations (NOAA) Space Environment Center (SEC). The SEC warns of impending solar storms so power, cell phone and satellite companies can take precautions.
NASA has a fleet of spacecraft watching and monitoring the sun, constantly sending data to Earth. If another major solar flare occurs and it is pointing at our planet, then the power companies and everyone else who might be affected can take appropriate action. Much like heeding a tornado warning. The big question remains, will the warnings matter if there isnÃƒÂ¢Ã‚Â€Ã‚Â™t a lot that can be done to protect the fragile power grids.
Seems like there is always some danger lurking, but this isnÃƒÂ¢Ã‚Â€Ã‚Â™t a brand new danger as power companies have known about this danger since the telegraph days. Now that our economy and our daily lives are so dependant on technology, computer chips and electricity, the concern is for real.
At this time the sun is in an unusually long quiet period, if the sun acts as expected, the activity should be picking up again the next couple of years as we reach another peak in the 11-year solar cycle. NASAÃƒÂ‚Ã‚Â has recently published a paper warning of another possible Carrington Event and warns that we need to be ready.
Warning: Never look at the sun with binoculars, camera or a telescope without proper store bought sun filters, or you will damage your eyes.
ÃƒÂ‚Ã‚Â© 2009 Sam Montana
National Academy of Science report
Having a good education is important to one's success in life. Education is the key to success, without a good education you will find it hard to achieve success in one's life. A good education is important because you will be able to think for yourself and communicate intelligently to other people. Persons who don`t have a good education background will have a difficult time finding jobs and also will earn less money. If a person is unable to reason and think for himself then that person will have problem in finding and keeping a job. They will not be very successful in life until they improve their educational background. Jobs are hard to get, and the employers will seek the most qualified and intelligent person to fill the vacancy because of the competition out there.
It is never too late to get an education, once you gained a good education background it stays with you for life. So if you need to improve or get a good education now. Most jobs are not employing people with the basic education from high school anymore or unless you want very low paying job that can't meet your needs. To achieve success in one's life you need to start by attending college or university to achieve a degree or diploma. Remember the focus here is how you can achieve success in one's life. Well you can start by achieving a certificate,diploma and degree. So, you can start from the bottom to the top. Having a good education is an investment like owning a house or a car. Once you invest your time and money in your education you will reap the huge reward what it will give you in life.
Why is education so significant?
The thing that strikes me about education is knowledge acquired. Education gives us the perspective of the things around us. Education help us to look at our lives and learn from every experiences. The future of a country is safe in the hands of educated peoples. Education is important for the economic growth of our countries. It fosters principles of socialism and equality. A person can't be a complete man without a good education. Education also builds your self esteem and how you view yourself. A person with a good education background will have more confident when approaching a new job and also when interacting with people.
Teachers are very special. Saying “thank you” to teacers/lecturers is the very least yet very sweet and thoughtful that we can do. Teachers are among the greatest people in our world; they are devoted and fully committed when it comes to nurturing one’s learning.
Here is a collection of some splendid thank you messages that you can send to your lecturers or teacher. Read on to find the perfect thank you message for your dear lecturer and teacher.
1 Thank you for being such a good lecturer. You have educated me countless lessons in academic as well as lessons in life as well! I really value you in so many ways because without having you my dear teacher, I’m nothing!
2 Hello Teacher (name). You are such an inspiration to me! You’re teachings are great and indeed very useful in my life. Thank you for being so dedicated in your job.
3 Thank you for everything! We are so lucky to have a lecturer like you!
4 Hello to my dearest teacher! I just want to thank you for being so kind and dedicated. I’m always excited to attend you lecture, because I’m sure that I’m going to learn again something new and interesting. Thank you and God bless you dear teacher!
5 Good day to you teacher (name)! This message is to simply thank you! You enlighten me through your teachings! I will always be thankful to you for making my future brighter. Thank you and indeed you are amazing!
6 Hello teacher (name)! You are the best! Just wanna say thank you for becoming a great lecturer for me! Every day is a meaningful day because of you! Thank you!
7 Your motivating words and phrases and as well as your emotional gestures have made me what I am and who I am. “Thank you” is the exact words that are perfect for you! Thank you dear teacher (name)! You are amazing indeed!
8 Thank you my teacher! I always learn from you that makes me a better person almost every single day. You are great and a wonderful person to look up to. Thank you for everything and I hope this simple thank you message from me, makes you feel happy and overwhelmed. God bless you more teacher (name)!
9 Without a great lecturer like you, I could have been lost. Thanks for your effort in guiding me, motivating me and most importantly for making me exactly what I am today.
10 I may not express this at all times. Yet, I truly mean it when I say thank you teacher for the countless things you have done for us.
11 Many thanks to you teacher (name)! You have always brought us on the right path. We will never forget you. Whatever
success we might have achieved in our future it’s because you have been a wonderful teacher for us. Thank you again!
12 I found friendship, guidance, discipline and love, and almost everything in just one person. And that fantastic person is you (name of your teacher).
Take time to appreciate your dear teachers and make them feel that they are such a special person in your life. Say thanks to your favorite lecturer or teacher by sending any of this thank you messages. Also check Teacher Appreciation sayings
If you are a looking for messages to thank the nursery teacher of your kid, then you have reached the right spot. In this article you will find an excellent collection of thank you messages for nursery teachers. Read on to find the best message to convey your gratitude and thanks to the nursery teachers.
When you observe that your child is singing the Alphabet Song and reciting 1-10 numbers then, you should be thankful to your child’s nursery teacher. Here is a beautiful selection of great thank you messages for nursery teachers.
1 Many thanks to you teacher (name). My child (name) continues to be very smart recently. At home, I can even hear him/her singing the alphabet song and reciting a nice short-poem. Thank you so much Teacher (name) for all your efforts and dedication in teaching your nursery pupils including my son/ daughter.
2 Good day Teacher (name)! I’m the mommy of (name of the child) and I would like to personally thank you for doing such a good job. I can tell that my son/daughter is indeed growing wiser and intelligent and thus, he knows how to be confident enough doing such things. Thank you again Teacher (name)! God bless you more!
3 To all the teachers in nursery level; this message is to simply thank you for all the kindness and support for my son/daughter (name) during his/her three years of stay in your school.
4 Thank you very much Teacher (name)! Because my child truly enjoys her/his stay with you. You teach effectively because every day I can hear my son/daughter reciting a poem, counting numbers and even she/he is now confident speaking English. That’s really a big learning for my little one.
5 Thank you Teacher (name)! You help and guide my son/daughter every single day in building the foundation of his/her knowledge. My child in now showing full-confidence to achieve some things such as dancing, singing and reciting a poem. And you are the reason behind these wonderful achievements. Thank you!
6 My son/daughter is so happy at nursery class every day. You have helped her/him to build up her confidence a lot. Thank you very much!
7 Generally I’m very happy with my child’s every day progress report! Special thanks to his/her nursery teacher. Because of your
dedication, love and guidance our children truly gained essential learning that they should know.
8 Teacher (name), as a parent of (name of the child), I’d like to take this opportunity to thank you for the excellent achievements and leanings you have imparted to my son/ daughter progress. You’re a beautiful person who was able to established favorable journey in their lives.
Teaching job is hard a task and need full-commitment of time and effort once you have entered this kind of profession. So in return and as a reward for our heroes, why not thank them? A simple thank you will make them feel that they are special and delight their hearts someway.
Hope this collection of selected thank you messages for nursery teachers wil help you to convey your thanks and gratitude to the nursery teacher of your kid. Also check Thank You Messages for Teachers: Teacher Appreciation Sayings.