Different Kinds Of Mutations
Genetic mutations happen for different reason and have different effects depending on the person. There is a common mutation called “benign mutations” that explains why individuals look different from one another. Scientists and doctors use genetic testing to find and identify points in a human’s DNA where a gene mutation has happened and from there they can learn more about how the mutation has formed. Scientists have discovered that genetic mutations occur in only two ways. The first way is that the individual has inherited it from a parent, and the second way is acquired during the progression of the individual’s lifespan.
Mutations that are passed on from generations to generations (grandparents to parents to children) are called germline (hereditary) mutations, because they are present in the sperm and egg cells of the individual. Hereditary mutation is present in the individual’s body the day they were born. Mutations that develop in the germ cells (sperm and egg cells) are also called De Novo (new) mutations. In De Novo mutations explains genetic mutations at which an affected individual has a mutation in virtually all their living cell, but does not have any family history of that specific disorder. These acquired mutations develop in the DNA of the person’s cells during their lifetime. These changes can be caused by any environmental components such as exposure to the sun too much (ultraviolet radiation) or too many X-Ray tests. In addition, it can also develop if a mistake is made if the DNA copies itself during the cell division stage. Only the acquired mutations in somatic cells can’t be passed on to the next generations of children. When all the cells go through the division process during the growth and development stages, the person will have few cells with the mutations and few cells with no genetic change at all. That rare situation is called mossaicism, which is the property or state of being composed of cells of two genetically different types. A common mutation that occurs in more than 1 percent of the population is called polymorphism, because it changes many external factors of an individual. Polymorphism is responsible for factors like an individual’s hair color, blood type, and eye color. The only thing positive factor of polymorphism is that it has no dangerous, life changing effects on the individual’s health. Even though there are some risks of developing certain disorders, they are rare situations.
In conclusion, people know that mutations are a disorder that a person has to live with in their lifetime, but they do not know there are different kinds of mutations. Some mutations are present from the day the individual was born or acquired during their lifetime. Scientists are continuing to research and find solutions to cure the mutations, but it will be a long time before they can find a cure to correct their DNA to resolve the mutations.