Thank You Messages for Lecturers/Teachers

Teachers are very special. Saying “thank you” to teacers/lecturers is the very least yet very sweet and thoughtful that we can do. Teachers are among the greatest people in our world; they are devoted and fully committed when it comes to nurturing one’s learning. Here is a collection of some splendid thank you messages that you can send to your lecturers or teacher. Read on to find the perfect thank you message for your dear lecturer and teacher. 1 Thank you for being such a good lecturer. You have educated me countless lessons in academic as well as lessons in life as well! I really value you in so many ways because without having you my dear teacher, I’m nothing! 2 Hello Teacher (name). You are such an inspiration to me! You’re teachings are great and indeed very useful in my life. Thank you for being so dedicated in your job. 3 Thank you for everything! We are so lucky to have a lecturer like you! 4 Hello to my dearest teacher! I just want to thank...

Why Education is Important to One's Success in Life?

Having a good education is important to one's success in life. Education is the key to success, without a good education you will find it hard to achieve success in one's life. A good education is important because you will be able to think for yourself and communicate intelligently to other people. Persons who don`t have a good education background will have a difficult time finding jobs and also will earn less money. If a person is unable to reason and think for himself then that person will have problem in finding and keeping a job. They will not be very successful in life until they improve their educational background. Jobs are hard to get, and the employers will seek the most qualified and intelligent person to fill the vacancy because of the competition out there. It is never too late to get an education, once you gained a good education background it stays with you for life. So if you need to improve or get a good education now. Most jobs are not employing people with the...

Thank You Messages for Nursery Teachers

If you are a looking for messages to thank the nursery teacher of your kid, then you have reached the right spot. In this article you will find an excellent collection of thank you messages for nursery teachers. Read on to find the best message to convey your gratitude and thanks to the nursery teachers. When you observe that your child is singing the Alphabet Song and reciting 1-10 numbers then, you should be thankful to your child’s nursery teacher. Here is a beautiful selection of great thank you messages for nursery teachers. 1 Many thanks to you teacher (name). My child (name) continues to be very smart recently. At home, I can even hear him/her singing the alphabet song and reciting a nice short-poem. Thank you so much Teacher (name) for all your efforts and dedication in teaching your nursery pupils including my son/ daughter. 2 Good day Teacher (name)! I’m the mommy of (name of the child) and I would like to personally thank you for doing such a good job. I can t...

Advantages of School Field Trips

  Exposing students to an actual and hands-on learning experience like a school field trip is an effective method of teaching. It is effective in a sense that it is entirely a different experience and new approach for children to acquire knowledge while having fun and relaxation at the same time.  Here are the advantages of having a school field trip: Field trips give students the opportunity to visit new places and new environment. It erases the boredom of classroom lectures, especially on their most hated subject and teacher, even just for a day. New environment means new challenges that awaken students’ interest to learn and get new learning information. For young students, field trip is a day off from class or a no class at all activity. It is more about enjoyment, excitement, fun, fun and more fun without the pressure of being called to answer a question or be given a surprise quiz. They get the opportunity to interact with one another in a more informal, nat...

How to Pass the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET)

Young or old, fresh graduate or teacher for many years, in order to be a licensed teacher, one needs to pass the board exam for teachers or the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET). To test-takers, the mere idea of taking a comprehensive exam is enough to make one shiver and sweat. All the more if the exam lasts an entire day! I took the LET in October 2009—and PASSED! Read about my personal experience here. Here are some tips and tricks that can help you review, prepare and even pass! Familiarize yourself with the LET’s table of specifications and point system. The table of specifications, as every teacher should know, identifies the topics covered by a test and how much weight each topic is given. Every board exam has one. A copy of the LET coverage (updated November 2011) is included in the “kit” the PRC gave you after your application. The general distribution of items is: General Education, 150 items; Professional Education, 150 items; Major or...

Precautionary Measures Before, During, and After Volcanic Eruptions

Volcanic eruptions happen with early warnings unlike earthquakes that are sudden. There are early warning signs before a volcano erupts so there is at least time for residents around the volcano to prepare before the actual eruption occurs. People should know that before a volcano erupts there are warning signs such as rumbling sounds, continuous emissions of steam, increasing temperature around the volcano that results to withering of plants around and unusual behaviors of animals and earthquakes. There are dangers that volcanic eruptions pose to people so it is important that they know how to handle situations before, during and after volcanic eruptions to avoid serious problems. The government has agencies that take care of reporting information about a certain volcano and its activities in order for people to be warned and avoid unpleasant incidents from happening. Here are precautionary measures before volcanic eruptions: 1. Each one should be aware of the dangers that volcanic...

A Teacher's Guide: Tips on Writing an Organized Five Paragraph Essay

As a teacher of elementary and middle school students, one hurdle is teaching the skills to write an organized five paragraph essay.  While there are many different methods to choose from, there is a simple formula that can be applied every time.  By creating a strong thesis statement, using a graphic organizer, and implementing the introduction-body-conclusion format, your students can produce a well written five paragraph essay for any writing assignment. The Thesis Statement is the backbone of any well written essay. As defined by Webster's Online Dictionary; "A thesis statement is the main point that is to be proven by an essay. Usually backed up by examples, the thesis statement is the theme of that whole piece."  By dividing the thesis statement into three parts, you have effectively mapped out the three body paragraphs of the essay.  This is often referred to as a 'three-prong' thesis statement.  Each 'prong' or point mentioned in the thesis i...

K+12 Education in the Philippines

The Enhanced K+12 Basic Education Program in the Philippines has been officially started. It has been initiated by the Aquino administration where students will have to undergo a new system of education. This program will require all incoming students to enroll into two more years of basic education. Thus, the K+12 System will basically include the Universal kindergarten, 6 years of elementary, 4 years of junior high school with an additional 2 years for senior high school. Moreover, the program aims to uplift the quality of education in the Philippines in order for graduates to be easily employed. The program also aims to meet the standards required for professionals who would want to work abroad. Most importantly, the system aims to fully enhance and develop the students in order for them to be well-prepared especially in emotional and cognitive aspects. Through this, graduates will be able to face the pressures of their future workplace. However, not all are in favor of the K+12...

The Development of the Educational System in the Philippines

The educational system in the Philippines had undergone various stages of development. These stages of educational evolution can be traced way back from the Pre-Spanish period, to the Spanish Period, to the American period, to the Commonwealth and the Japanese period going to the present. There is no definite information about the system of education in the Philippines during the Pre-Spanish period. According to the history, the Philippine education had manifested in the culture of the people. However, there are no definite records that were available showing the types of schools that were established by the natives, as well as on the subjects or methods that they used. There were Written and Oral literatures but all of the records that were written were accordingly destroyed by the Spanish colonizers; this was because they believed that those written records in literature were works of devils. Some of the Oral literatures have been preserved until today and these are in the forms ...

The Elements of the Teaching and Learning Process

Teaching and learning involves the process of transferring knowledge from the one who is giving to the one who is receiving. Teaching process cannot be performed if there is one element that is missing among the three of the teaching and learning elements. There is what we called as elements of teaching and learning processes. These elements are necessary to be able to make teaching and learning possible. Without one of these elements, there could be no real teaching or learning process that will exist. It is so important that the presence of these elements is present in the process of teaching, considering that all of them play an important role in the system The elements of teaching and learning process are the teacher, the leaner as well as the good learning environment. It is being considered that learning occur when there is established relationship among these three elements. The teaching as well as the learning activity depends upon how these elements works together. The teac...

Objective Tests: Guidelines for Writing Matching Type and Multiple-Choice Questions

                     Image Credit Matching Type Questions These are used to measure the learners' thinking at the lower levels of knowledge and comprehension. They are relatively easy to construct and can be corrected quickly. In a matching test, there are usually two columns of items. For each item in one column, the students are required to select a correct item. The items may be names, concepts, places, phrases or events. To discourage guessing, the teacher should put more responses on the right-hand column than the left-hand column. It is important that the entire test appears on the same page so that the learners will not turn the page back and forth when searching for the right answer. One problem of matching test is that it often requires recall rather than comprehension and more sophisticated levels of thinking. Higher levels of cognition may be called for in matching questions that involves analogies, cause and eff...

Common Problems in Elementary Education

Elementary education prepares and introduces students to the very foundation of academic essentials. It is here where they receive a general education such as writing, reading, math, science, social studies and history. In this level of education, students are comprehensively trained for high school level and college curriculum. And as grade level advances, learning methods and materials intensify even more. Elementary education also known as primary educations is advantageous to students, however, there are some problems with elementary schooling that exist within the system. Learning Method Teachers in elementary education have a fixed method of transmitting learning information to students. In other words, the coursework is fixed. Teachers will teach in a manner that is effective and appeals to majority of his students. But this method won’t work effectively for other students who have their own unique learning style. Some students can learn and understand the lessons by m...

Effective Teaching Methods: Types of Evaluation

                  Image Credit Types of Evaluation Since evaluation is an integral part of the educative process, the teacher should guide every learning experience in relation to the needs and interest of the learners. Evaluation forms the basis for deciding what type of appraisal is needed to assess a particular learning situation. Diagnostic evaluation: This is the type of evaluation the teacher considers at the beginning of the unit or course to determine the different levels in terms of learning experience of children to serve as basis for grouping them - slow, average or fast. Diagnostic evaluation will also enable the teacher to ascertain or analyze the nature or cause of difficulties, and, in effect, help them plan remedial activities to meet their interests and needs. Formative evaluation: This type of evaluation the teacher performs the learning activities to find out how well he is doing and what is needed during...

Classroom Discipline: Common Types of Disciplinary Problems

                    Image Credit Discipline is one of the major areas of concern for teachers especially the new ones. Discipline refers to the order which is necessary in the classroom for students learning to occur effectively. Order is needed in the classroom to facilitate the teaching-learning process. If the learning activities are well-planned and prepared, the presentation elicits and maintains students' attention, interest and involvement, if the activities are challenging and offer realistic opportunities for success, then order will be established. Discipline, as applied to classroom instruction, is any means or device adopted by the teacher to achieve orderly behavior of the learners. Today, some educational authorities agree that a classroom has a good discipline when the learners are eagerly and earnestly performing their learning tasks. The ultimate objective of discipline is to help the learners develop ethical cha...

Effective Teaching: General Principles in Test Construction

                      Image Credit There are fundamental principles that should be observed and guide the teachers when designing an assessment system as they prepare their own tests. Measure All Instructional Objectives Teacher should construct tests to measure clearly the prescribed learning objectives that have communicated and imparted to the learners. The test is designed as an operational control to guide the learning sequences and experience and should be in harmony with the teacher's instructional objectives. Cover All Learning Tasks A good learning task focus and measures a representative sample of the teacher's learning objectives. Use Appropriate Test Items A good test usually includes items that are most appropriate for a particular objective to check on learner achievement. Some test questions are better for measuring recall of specific information, while other types are good for tapping higher-level thinki...

Classroom Discipline: Causes of Disciplinary Problems

        Image Credit The common causes of disciplinary problems are findings from some researches. The teacher factor: The teacher can be a potent factor in causing disciplinary problems. The teacher's personality has bearing upon the learners which stem from two aspects - the teacher's personal characteristics and his scholastic qualifications. The physical characteristics include the teacher's personal appearance, poise, health, mannerisms, habits of neatness and cleanliness and well-modulated voice. The teacher who is suffering from chronic disease, for instance, asthma or ulcers might be late or absent very often. A mentally and emotionally healthy teacher can contribute to the intellectual and emotional development of the learners. A teacher who is cheerful, friendly, helpful and warm and tries to develop a spirit of camaraderie and unity in the classroom need not worry about having behavior problems. The teacher's scholastic qualifications can cause ...

Application of the Laws of Motion in Our Daily Life

The laws of motion may sound very geeky to most people and discussions over these laws as formulated by Sir Isaac Newton is better left in the classroom. These three laws of motion are fundamental in the discussion of mechanics in physics. However these laws are also basic in our lives even if we are too busy to notice it. Now first let us refresh our memories on what these laws of motions are. Newton’s first law of motion states that a body continues to maintain its state of rest or of uniform motion unless acted upon by an external unbalanced force. This first law of motion is also called the law of inertia. From the latin word “iners” which means idle, this first law affirms that an object at rest will remain at rest unless otherwise an external force will cause it to move. An object in motion will remain in uniform motion following a straight line unless it is acted on by an external motion which causes it to change in direction or to decrease its speed. This fi...

Objective Types of Test: Guidelines for Writing Completion Questions and True-False Questions

                Image Credit Completion Questions These are useful in evaluating the learners' thinking at the lower cognitive levels of knowledge and comprehension. It is usually difficult to prepare completion items capable of testing higher level thinking abilities of the learners. Some authorities in administering tests believe that it is not easy to construct items with one correct logical answer. In the completion test, sentences are presented from which certain works have been omitted. The learner is to fill in the blank to complete the meaning. This type of short-answer question, sometimes called a fill-in-the-blank question, is suitable for measuring a wide variety of content. Although it usually tests recall of information, it can also demand thought and ability to understand relationships and make influences. Guidelines for Writing Completion Questions The direction "Fill in the blanks" is usually sufficient, b...

The Manifest Function of Education

Education plays significant roles in society. These roles have become important parts of nurturing the people towards their social development, towards their relationship with other people and towards the society itself. Education has different manifest function (Javier et al, 2002). These functions are social placement, promoting social and political integration, socialization, agent of change, transmitting culture and social control. It is because education and the educational institution identify the most possible qualified people that will fill the positions that are available in society, education is considered as one of the agent of social placement. Through education, one’s social status in the society had been identified. Education also promotes the integration of the social and political aspects of society. The educational institution functions to promote social as well as political integration in society. It is done by making the diverse religious and ethnic groups t...

Importance of School Uniforms

Today, all over social media and the news, there are many news stories about kid’s getting into trouble about what they are wearing to school and protesting their suspensions because of what they are wearing. Boys getting into trouble for wearing jeans that are hanging too low are that are too baggy. Girls getting in trouble for wearing clothes that are a little to sexual or provocative. These types of stories generate a great deal of comments, pro and con. But for the most part, the general consensus is that these kids do not seem to understand that there are rules and dress codes that they must follow. In one case, a sixth grade girl protested that she had to go home and change because of what she wearing. Most comments on social media stated that if she can’t learn to follow the rules and dress codes in elementary school, how can she function in the real work when she looks for and gets a job. Reasons why wearing of school uniforms are important for students: Schoo...

Types of Lesson: Appreciation Lesson

                   Image Credit An appreciation lesson is designed to instruct the class to understand, appreciate and enjoy something. In order to appreciate something, one must understand to enjoy. Appreciation is a combination of understanding and enjoyment. A learner who understands and finds easy solving arithmetic problems, may be actually enjoying it, and therefore, he appreciates it. An appreciation lesson should focus on developing desirable values. A good appreciation lesson should help learners to evaluate values and guide them make proper choices. Values that are experienced in individual conduct are characterized by goodness and uprightness. These desirable values inevitably make the learner's existence more meaningful and worth living. The primary objective of the teacher in appreciation lesson is to plan interesting lessons that will stimulate and induce learners to appreciate what is beautiful and worthwhile. The...

The Type of Government in the Philippines in the Spanish Colonial Period

During the Spanish colonization in the Philippines, the government was composed of two branches, the executive and the judicial. There was no legislative branch on that time since the laws of the islands were coming from Spain. The only laws created in the Philippines are those who were ordered by the Governor General. The government on that time was lead by the Governor General. He was considered as the representative of Spain and the King himself. He is the highest officer in the island and responsible for implementing laws from the mother country. He also has the power to appoint or relieve officer in the government or priest in the parish, except with those personally appointed by the king of Spain. The provinces in the island were called as “Encomienda” and were governed by the “Encomienderos”, later they were replaced by the “Alcalde Mayor” “Alcalde Mayor” had both the executive and judicial power. He had also given the right t...

The Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET): How I Prepared for and Took the Exam Even During Typhoon Season

September 27. The day had been marked for months on every calendar I have—in my mobile phone, in my planner, on my computer, in my room, in the editorial schedule. The day of the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET), the board exam for teacher-wannabes. Come first week of September, I was reviewing more intensely, and also taking more care of my body. (Read my essay on how to pass the LET.) I ate more vegetables, fish and fruits, and tried to sleep earlier than 2 a.m. I took time off work to mentally prepare myself to think of the exam, instead of the deadlines I was supposed to beat. The week before the Exam Day, I followed a stricter regimen, alternating between reviews and relaxation or recreation throughout each day. To keep nervous breakdowns and panic attacks at bay, I followed meditation techniques taught by Sir Knoi on our last review session. As he also suggested, I had my baon and time planned out days before Exam Day. As it turned out, no amount of preparation wo...

Howard Giles' Accommodation Theory in Second Language Acquisition

The Accommodation Theory by Howard Giles  draws attention to the roles of socio-psychological attitudes, motivation, formal instruction, and larger community or environment in L2  learning.  And, the important features of this theory are embedded in the preceding variables.  First, I would like to discuss the roles of socio-psychological attitudes and motivation in second language acquisition (SLA).  Based on my experiences as an ESL teacher for more than 10 years, I’ve observed that second language learners (in-group) learn more effectively when there’s positive reinforcement in the classroom.  As Giles and Gardner consider, motivation is the premium mobile or primary determinant of L2 proficiency.        Second, the role of formal instruction inSLAis a sensitive issue.  Many language teachers fail to consider the importance of an accommodating lesson plan.  Formal instruction means the L2 is taught under th...

Types of Teaching Lessons: Development Lesson

                  Image Credit The development lesson is type of something to be learned in which a new idea is presented and developed. It may be a concept, a principle, a theory, a skill or a generalization. The distinguishing characteristic of the development lesson is the novel idea which the class has not known yet and the interest and enthusiasm of the learners. There are two types of development lesson - the formal and informal. The formal development lesson utilizes deductive and inductive methods; while the informal development lesson does not use any particular method with definite steps. It usually uses the question and answer method or the conversational approach. The development method follows a certain procedure where the learners undergo the prescribed learning steps and processes in order to arrive in some insight and understanding, analysis, interpretation and generalization. It may also be noted that many lessons in t...

A Partial SWOT Analysis of Public and Private Education - Strengths and Weaknesses of the Private School System

Strengths of the Private School System A. Smaller physical plants are easier to maintain and clean. Generally speaking a private school will be cleaner and easier to maintain than a public school. A cleaner environment gives both teachers and students the feeling that they are in an academic environment conducive to teaching and learning rather than just as a social gathering place, as many public schools have become. B. Private schools are often safer that most public schools. This is primarily due to the smaller physical plant and lower student populations. When these two elements are present, it is easier for teachers and administrators to keep an eye on student movement and activities. This also translates to greater parental control. C. Better teacher/student ratios are available in private schools. This is one of the most important strengths of private schools when selling themselves to parents. There are few substitutes for teacher/student ratios that provide a bet...

Classroom Management: The Behavior Modification Approach

                     Image Credit This approach involves various techniques and methods, that ranges from simple rewards to elaborate reinforcement training. This behavior modification is rooted in the work of James Watson and B.F. Skinner and assumes that behavior is shaped by the environment and pays little attention to the causes of problems. Teachers utilizing this approach spend little time on the personal history of the learners or on searching for the reasons or causes brought about by a particular problem. Teachers strive to increase their involvement in the occurrence of appropriate behavior through a systematic and consistent system of giving rewards and to reduce the possibility of inappropriate behavior through punishment or penalty for misbehavior. The basic principles of the behavior modification approach are: The behavior is influenced and shaped by its consequences, and not the causes of problem brought...

A Look at the Philosophy of John Locke Regarding Education.

With all due respect to Pink Floyd, education is one of the most important aspects to maintaining our society. We do, in fact, need an education. A well educated people will be happier and more prosperous and therefore be more inclined to social order. “Man becomes a rational animal when he is educated” (Goel). Understanding how to educate each successive generation is the key to creating a sustainable society. It is a twist on the old adage that if you give a man a fish, you feed him for a day; if you teach him to fish; you feed him for the rest of his life. In the case of education: if you become educated, you teach yourself; if you learn how to educate others, you teach the world. The philosopher John Locke had a great deal to say about education. Locke uses the term education to encompass the process of a child growing into an adult. This process includes the need to socialize the child and prepare them to enter into society. Locke draws from his work on natural rights...

K-12 Education in the Philippines: Views and Points of Filipino Teachers and Critics

Just recently, news broke that the lately engineered K-12 is quite unfeasible and might not be in full effect before long. Contrary to Department of Education’s assertion that by this year, changes in the curriculum will be discerned in most public schools as well as private institutions. Going back, why then that most educators and professors from different universities are still in doubt that the said program is still not good to go? Is K-12 then possible?                 Many critics are still bothered that K-12 might be more disastrous than helpful if the transition is not velvety. As sighted by one of the professors from the University of the Philippines-Diliman, integrating K-12 to the educational system is like overhauling the whole system and it obviously require generous time to bring about. Ironically, DepEd keeps reassuring that the time is ample and they will do it gradually. Then if it is tru...

The Fundamental Equipment of the Learner in Learning

There are certain fundamental qualities of a learner that can be considered as the learner’s equipment in order for him of for her to absorbed knowledge in learning. These fundamental equipments are the learners cognitive as well as the learner’s appetitive faculties. These faculties will naturally help or guide the learner as he dealt with the learning process. The cognitive faculties of the learners included his or her five senses, his memory, his imagination, as well as his intellect. All of these faculties is related to the basic operation of the human brain and are necessary for the learning process. Through the learner’s five senses, the learners can be able to see, to hear, to taste and to smell. He or she can be able to grasp different information from his or her surrounding environment using these natural senses. With the learner’s imagination, he or she can be able to form pictorial representation of material objects in his or her mind. This ability...

Types of Teaching Lessons: Supervised Study Lesson

                 Image Credit This supervised study lesson is one whose primary objective is to teach learners how to study a given subject effectively under the direction and guidance of the teacher. The teacher gives the defined direction in relation to steps, methods and strategies and supervises the learning process. It is interesting to note that under the supervised study scheme, the learners are taught the techniques of learning while the teacher acts as a guide in the various steps and procedure in the classroom. Importance of Supervised Study The importances of supervised studies in college level are: The observation that a number of failures and dropouts in school are due to poor study habits. Some students just memorize facts and information without understanding them. Others just waste time because of lack of concentration on the learning tasks. Many hours especially in the rural and slum areas do not have adeq...

Audio-lingual Habit Versus Cognitive-code Learning in Language Acquisition

  First, I would like to state my definition of language.  I define language as a tool to convey verbal and nonverbal messages to live and survive in this challenging world.  Guy Cook describes human existence without language as inconceivable for it is at the heart of human life.  Second, I would like to affirm my belief in the rationalistic, cognitivist, and mentalistic theory by Noam Chomsky.  I believe that language is innate and each individual has the ability to adapt to his/her language environment because of the presence of mental grammar,  and universal grammar.              I believe that the aforementioned viewpoints correspond to my use of the cognitive-code learning method in teaching English as a second language (ESL) here in Weihai, China.  I find it very effective to apply the cognitive code learning method in teaching ESL to primary, secondary and tertiary levels because it...

Learning Evaluation: Types of Standardized Tests

                    Image Credit There are fundamentally four types of standardized tests. Intelligence Tests: The two commonly used intelligence tests are the Stanford-Binet (SB) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (WISC). The first is group intelligence test; while the second is administered on an individual basis. Achievement Tests: An achievement test is designed as a sampling of skills or abilities on specified area of knowledge. There are several types of achievement test. These are: Survey or general achievement tests: These are designed to measure the knowledge and skills of students in subject areas like math and science. Diagnostic tests: These are designed to identify and locate the strengths and weaknesses for purposes of placement and formulating an appropriate instructional program. Competency tests: These are designed to determine the learner's degree of competence in reading, language and...

Classroom Management: Group Managerial Approach

               Image Credit The group managerial approach to discipline on classroom management is based on Jacob Kounin's research. He emphasized the importance of responding immediately to group student behavior that might be undesirable in order to prevent problems rather than having to deal with them after they come up. If a student misbehaves, and the teacher stops the misbehavior immediately, it remains an isolated incident and most likely, it will not develop into a problem. On the other hand, if the misbehavior is not noticed, is ignored or allowed to continue for too long, it might spread throughout the group and eventually becomes more serious and chronic. For Kouhin, classroom activities can be analyzed for purposes of management. It may be divided into two categories - of students’ behavior and teacher management behavior. Kouhin's behaviors and categories for observing classroom management include two major categories ...

Types of Lesson: Drill Lesson

                  Image Credit The drill lesson is intended for automatization of certain facts, information, habits, attitudes and skills to fix association for permanency or to perfect a certain degree a particular skill. Drills are necessary for mastery of historical facts and information and development of skills in some subject, example: typewriting, shorthand and mechanical activities in a vocational education laboratory. Drills are also needed for training verbal skills as pronunciation of foreign words. Characteristics of a Good Drill Mere repetition will not bring mastery of certain facts and information. For repetition to be effective, it must be within the interest and comprehension of the learners. There are certain guidelines to be observed and followed. Motivation Motivation arises from the learners' interest and expressed purposes. It is necessary to arouse the learners' sustained effort in the learning activity. Foc...

The Spanish Era in the Philippines

When European traders, in search for a new route to the Spice Islands, stumbled into the Philippine archipelago in 1521, they found the people living in a comparatively high state of civilization. The natives dwelt on houses made of bamboo and palm leaves, and were properly attired at all times. They cultivated rice, which was their staple food, fished the extensive waters around them, and brewed many kinds of drinks, which they were very fond of. The women’s position in society was high; tribal laws and customs recognized her equality with the men in many respects. The people practiced monogamy in general. Codes of law governed their conduct. Punishments with varying degrees of severity were meted out to culprits whose offenses were tried in public courts presided over by the chiefs. image source Several languages were spoken, then, as now, although there was one common alphabet called babaying, which resembled the ancient alphabet of India. Spanish historians, writing...

Integrating Social Studies into Math, Reading, and Writing

Social studies is one of the easiest subjects to integrate into other subjects. This is good, because often times it is one of the first areas of the curriculum to get pushed to the back burner due to an emphasis on Language Arts and Math. Although it would be great to have time every day to devote to social studies alone, sometimes it is not a possibility in every classroom. One way that social studies can cross subjects is through reading. There are several non-fiction books, articles, and historical fiction books that can be used to teach both social studies and reading strategies. Content Area Reading by Richard T. Vacca and Jo Anne L. Vacca says “Picture books provide students with background knowledge about people, places, events, and experiences. They can ground students in cognitive concepts critical for understanding a variety of content area subjects. In addition, they can provide rich opportunities for promoting cultural diversity because picture books with a multicul...

Classroom Management: The Assertive Approach

                         Image Credit The personality, philosophy, and teaching style will directly affect the teacher's managerial approach to classroom management. There are various approaches, or models that have been products of researchers and are applicable to classroom management. These approaches are based on psychology, classroom experience, and common sense. These approaches form a continuum from firm, direct, and structured to flexible, indirect, and democratic. Assertive Approach This approach to classroom management expects the teacher to specify rules of behavior and consequences for disobeying them. These rules and consequences should be communicated clearly to the pupils/students during the first day of classes. It is important that the learners know and realize that they should be held accountable for their actions. The teacher can devise his rules based on sound criteria of imposing sanctions for ...

The Three Kinds of Government That Were Established by the Americans in the Philippines

There were three kinds of government that were established by the Americans in the Philippine archipelago during the American period. These kinds of governments are the Military government, the Civil Government and the Commonwealth government. American rule of the Philippines began during the Spanish American war in 1898, when the United States defeated Spain and Spain ceded possession of the Philippines to the United States. Following the defeat of Spain, the Philippines did not want another colonial ruler and went to war with the United States. Just two days before the U.S. congress ratified the treaty in Paris, Filipino nationalists led by Emilio Aguinaldo started a war with the United States. A terrible time in history as many Filipinos died in the war and during the ensuing famine and disease as the war lasted between 1899 and 1902. The Military Government is the first government that was established by the Americans. When they captured the city of Manila in the month of April ...

A Partial SWOT Analysis of Public and Private Education - Strengths of the Public School System

A SWOT and Comparative Analysis of Private vs Public Education – Part 1 - (Strengths of the Public School Systems) By Arthur H Tafero Many people like to discuss the comparison of private schools to public schools. Generally speaking, private schools are cleaner and safer. But many public schools are also clean and safe. One of the primarily differences between the schools is the use of money. Public schools tend to spend more money on administrators, teachers, and union personnel. Private schools are not bound by unions. Sometimes, this is a good thing and at other times, it may be a flaw in the private school system. Private schools tend to spend their money on the physical plant of the school. Administrators and teachers are generally paid less than public school teachers. Private schools are almost always smaller, which means better student/teacher ratios. The physical plant of a private school is generally more attractive than some messy public schools. Let&rsqu...

Principles and Methods of Teaching: Types of Appreciation

               Image Credit Appreciation can be classified into four types - the intellectual, the aesthetic, the moral and ethical, and the religious. Aesthetic Appreciation This type of appreciation is directly experienced in marveling and appreciating natural creations in the environment. It is usually derived from conditions or state of affairs that are artistic and inspiring and are found in subjects like literature, music, art and dramatic presentations. Enjoyment comes from something beautiful. These may be rhythm and grace in dance, harmony of colors in a painting, proportion in a sculpture and blending of sound in a musical composition. Subject matter that provides and emphasizes good tastes, high ideals, and love of the beautiful should be developed. Ethical-Social Appreciation Since ethical values are universal and social appreciation comes from satisfaction in recognizing moral qualities of goodness and truth, this type of a...

Classroom Management: The Business-Academic Approach

                      Image Credit A well-managed classroom that is free from disruptions, where students behave in an orderly manner and are involved enthusiastically in learning, exist where teachers have a clear idea of the type of classroom conditions, students’ behavior and instructional activities they wish to produce. This business-academic approach to classroom management was developed by Evertson and Emmer. The emphasis was on the organization and management of students as they engage in academic work. Evertson and Emmer divide organizing, and managing student work into three major categories - establishments and communication of work assignments; standards and procedures, monitoring of student work; and feedback to students. Clear Communication of Assignments and Work Requirements The teacher must define, establish and explain clearly to the learners work assignments, features of work, procedures, and prescr...

The Philippines: School Teacher

A teacher is one of the most respected jobs in the Philippines. However, it is also one of the hardest professions available in the Philippines. There are many implications a teacher has to face; the lack of sufficient resources for teaching is an example. The salary of a teacher is not a huge amount compared to other professionals. Teachers in public schools earn more than private schools; however public schools lack the adequate facilities to effectively teach students in a conducive environment. The private school teacher will have to sacrifice the leisure of teaching in a completely facilitated school to earn more just to make a living. A private school teacher handles 10 to 30 students while a public school teacher handles 30 to 100 students in a single classroom. The lack of teachers will also make a public school teacher handle more loads than a private school teacher. Becoming a public school teacher is even harder, a private teacher must have a strong grip or influence on th...

Classroom Values That Should Be Inculcated to Students

To avoid or minimize classroom discipline, teachers should clearly state the rules and regulations at the beginning of the school year. This is to create positive and healthy environments for the students and the teacher where both will feel comfortable interacting with each other. Thus, teachers should inculcate values and make it a set of rules that will guide students with regards to appropriate behavior inside and outside the classroom. Respect is very important for both students and teacher because there is no way that a classroom environment can function without it. Likewise, it is impossible for an exchange of knowledge to transpire if there is an absence of respect. A teacher should clearly explain to his students what actions or measures fall under respect. Even in simple things such as raising hands during class discussion, talking to classmates, caring for school property, following instructions from adults or talking to school janitors, respect should always be practice...

How to Use Understanding by Design (UbD) in Classroom Teaching

Understanding by Design or UbD has been implemented by the Philippines Department of Education (DepEd) as its curriculum in place of the RBEC or Revised Basic Education Curriculum. Understanding by Design or UbD is a foreign framework and may seem daunting at first, but once you realize what potentials it has in making understanding and learning more long-lasting—and therefore effective—applying the framework to classroom setting will be easier. The key is simply by putting your lesson plans in the greater perspective of the curriculum's Big Ideas. Here are some ways you can start designing your classes for understanding: Be the keeper of the Big Idea. The Big Ideas are the main goals and objectives not just of the curriculum but of all lessons set forth. In order to keep lessons anchored on the Big Ideas, some of the content from textbooks or previous curriculum will have to be sacrificed. Every choice you make for classroom teaching should bring out the Big Idea i...

Tools for Educating Students with Orthopedic and Musculoskeletal Disorders

Special education teachers have enormous responsibilities in terms of meeting the needs of students with orthopedic and musculoskeletal disorders such as curvature of the spine, hip conditions, limb deficiency, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The process of developing appropriate individualized education goals begins with educating oneself on specific characteristics of each disorder. Students with orthopedic and musculoskeletal disorders require instructional programs and physical management routines that aim to assist the student in achieving “functional outcomes in communication, mobility, socialization, work, and learning” (Snell & Brown, 2006, p.291). The purpose of this paper is first to outline teacher responsibilities in terms of meeting the needs of this population. Next the author offers a brief synopsis of educational implications for the following conditions: curvature of the spine, hip conditions, and limb deficiency. The final segment is a comprehensive...

How to Make Biology Class Fun and Interactive Part 1

In a student's mind, biology competes with history as the ultimate subject synonym of "memorization." And with good reason. Biology, being the science of life, suffers from bad PR and is often perceived as, ironically, a life-less subject. You can't blame students if all throughout the year, they are expected to memorize and remember an onslaught of terminology, concepts, names, laws, chemical processes, and scientific names. Biology should, by all means, be an exciting subject for students. Through it, they learn about the wondrous nature they live in and have yet to discover. They find more about their own species, their own bodies. Students get the chance to appreciate how complex life is and what a marvel it is that life exists. The variety of living things, the efficiency of organisms, the expansiveness of the world, the galaxy and the universe… all these that you tackle as biology teachers should be enough to make them want to know more. And the field of biolo...

How to Achieve Genuine Communication in an ESL Classroom

Genuine communication in the classroom is the most vital component of an EFL course, regardless of factors like type and length of course or the students’ level. In a way, achieving genuine classroom communication is not as difficult as it may seem. However, it requires skill and preparation. The first step is for the teacher to create a friendly and supportive atmosphere that encourages natural communication and make students feel at ease. To do this, the teacher needs to be genuinely interested in the students, their lives outside the classroom, and their needs in the classroom. That’s why it’s always beneficial to get to know your students and establish a professional, yet friendly working relationship. A good starting point is setting up “get to know everyone” games and activities at the beginning of the course where the students learn about each other, each other’s interests and preferences, as well as get to know the teacher. Creating a frien...

Types of Lesson: Application Lesson

               Image Credit The application lesson is a type of learning instruction that gives the learners the opportunity to relate, express and apply what they have learned. After arriving at the generalization, it is important to apply for further analysis and verification. When a learner learns a rule in science, it has to be applied in the solution of problems. The ability to apply a rule correctly in solving problems is the real test of what the learner has learned. In an application lesson, certain conditions or situations are created that will lead learners to express their thoughts through construction or illustration of the concept, or language what they think or feel. The application lesson is very valuable to the teacher and the learners. One can easily see if the learners have learned based on their ability to apply principles and rules in the solution of problems. It is also easier to determine what has been learned because...

Effective Teaching Methods: Criteria for Selecting Tests

                      Image Credit The two major criteria for selecting tests are reliability and validity. No matter what type of test one uses, it should be reliable and valid. Reliability means that the test yields similar results when it is repeated over a short period of time or when different form is used. It is used for measuring the accuracy and consistency with which a measuring device measures what it purports to measure. A reliable test can be viewed as consistent, dependable and stable. Validity means that the test does measure what it is represented as measuring. It is used for measuring the degree to which measuring instrument measures what it purports to measure. Test reliability can be improved by the following factors: Increased number of tests items: Reliability is higher when the number of items is increased, because the test involves a larger sample of the subject matter covered. Heterogeneity ...

Congratulation Messages for High School Graduate

If you are short of nice words and phrases to effectively convey your happiness for your friend who just graduated then simply use these sample congratulations messages for high school graduates. Read on to choose the perfect congratulation messages for high school graduate.  1) Congratulations! You are now a high school graduate and ready to enter college life. I and the rest of our family are very proud of you and your accomplishments.  I know that you can do it and continue reaching your dreams. Good luck in your next adventures.  2) I remember your first day in your high school life, as your friend I’m very happy to witnessed every success and downs in your high school life but most importantly, I’m very happy to see you doing your graduation march with flying colors. Wow! You are so smart! I wish you all the best and much successful endeavors coming in your college life. 3) Congratulations on your graduation! Completing your high school educ...

How to Conduct a Panel Forum

There are many ways to enhance the learning process among students or the masses in general. Among these informal education methods is the panel forum. What is a panel forum? A panel forum is basically a conversational approach to learning where a small group of experts in the topic of choice engage in an intellectual exchange of ideas. Certain issues or problems, preferably current events, are discussed to help clarify those issues or problems for the ultimate benefit of the listeners. The participants in a panel forum directly discuss and interact with each other in a conversational manner, giving out their expert opinion or ideas on the issue or problem. They do this in such a way that the audience is able to hear what the panel forum participants are discussing. The panel forum is commonly practiced in television shows where the opinions or viewpoints of the participants are magnified through the use of television cameras and microphones. A panel forum moderator makes sure that ...

Facilitate Effective Teaching: Characteristics of a Good Recitation

               Image Credit To appreciate instruction, there is a need to make a distinction between teaching and instruction. Teaching is the behavior of the teacher that evolves during the instructional process. Instruction refers to specific methods and activities by which the teacher influences learning. Characteristics of a Good Recitation It may be inferred that the most important characteristic of a recitation is to develop wholesome attitude essentials to effective teaching-learning process. It is in the recitation where varied ideas take place. It is this kind of learning atmosphere where pupils (students) develop creative expressions. Although there is no hand-and-fast rule in the conduct of the recitation, some authors in pedagogy recommended some guidelines. The recitation should be well planned. Planning and organizing of the learning materials will ensure the smooth unfolding of various activities during the recitation. Th...

Effective Teaching Methods: Evaluation of Instructional and Learning Outcomes

               Image Credit Researches in evaluating instructional outcomes at all levels of education have developed widespread interest. There are several questions that confront teachers at all levels that need to be addressed such as: Did the learners develop adequate skills? Were the teaching methods and strategies utilized adequate and effective in helping them pursue their goals and objectives? Which learning experiences were effective in promoting learning? How successful were the teacher's sustained effort in contributing to the realization of the primary objectives of education? Various development educational policies and strategic plans of action based on the results of these evaluations have led school authorities to look for changes and other alternatives to improve the quality of education. For Burton and Buckner, an educational program may be evaluated most satisfactorily by studying it "in terms of its philosophy of ed...

Tips for Teachers: When to Use Short-Answer and Essay Tests

                                    Image Credit The tips below provide the reader with a brief overview of when to use what type of test - short answer or essay. It is best, perhaps, to maintain a balance between both types of tests, since some students do better on one type than the other. Use short-answer test in the measurement of educational achievement when: The group to be tested is large. Highly reliable test scores must be obtained as efficiently as possible. Impartiality of evaluation, absolute fairness, and freedom from halo effects are essential. The teacher is more confident of his ability to express objective test items clearly than of his ability to judge essay test answers correctly. There is more pressure for speedy reporting of scores than for speedy test preparation. Use essay tests in the measurement of educational achievement when: Th...

Methods of Teaching: Review Principles and Techniques

           Image Credit Purposes of the Review Basically, the review is a type of teaching. The purposes are: Retention of facts and information learned operates directly through the fact that practice works through repetition of correct responses Organization of materials and experiences: This is a characterized by facts learned in the daily lessons should be tied together into a meaningful whole. For learning to be significant and meaningful facts and information learned in various learning situations should be felt and manifested in the experiences of the learners. Ability of the learner to evaluate the material: Daily lessons impress upon the learner that facts and information as well as topics are equal worth. Small learning units when systematically organized into a large learning unit, the learners can view a new and clearer perspective of the whole. Foundations of further learning: A review of the pre...

Smaller than the Smallest Snake in the World in Puerto Princesa, Philippines?

Finding this very small snake could be a rare discovery that this author has been ignoring for many months. He saw the small snake once again, wiggling its way in the toilet unlike any worm would do. He picked it up and tried to examine it closely. It doesn’t look like an earthworm at all. It's really a snake with shiny, scaly skin. Smallest Snake in the World The author searched the internet looking for information on the smallest snake in the world. He did find one, a snake as small as a spaghetti named Leptotyphlops carlae discovered in Barbados by Dr. Hedges of Pennsylvania State University in 2008. According to Dr. Hedges, as reported by Scott Norris of National Geographic News, Leptotyphlops carlae is believed to be at or near the minimum size possible for thread snakes at less than 4 inches long. Smaller than the Smallest Snake in the World? Sparked by curiosity, the author measured the small snake and was amazed at what he discovered. The small snake is 6.7 centimeter...

The Most Important Contributions of the Babylonians Plus Interesting Historical Facts

Babylonia was located in what is today Iraq, with their capital of Babylon located just 59 miles southwest of Baghdad, Iraq. The name Babylon comes from the ancient Akkadian language and means Gates of God. Babylon is referenced numerous times in the Bible in The Book Of Genesis, Chapter 11, Babylon is featured in the story of The Tower of Babel and the Hebrews claimed the city was named for the confusion which ensued after God caused the people to begin speaking in different languages so they would not be able to complete their great tower to the heavens (the Hebrew word bavel means "confusion"). The Babylonians were Semitic Amorites who attacked and conquered the Sumerian. They occupied the Sumerian territories in 2300 BCE and established a new capital which they called Babylonia. One of the most remarkable and most popular kings of the Babylonians was Hammurabi. This intelligent and well-organized leader became the Babylonian king in 1700 BCE. He compiled all the known laws during...

Batis Online: Filipino Teaching Resources on the Internet

The subject Filipino has been unfairly tagged by students for a long time. It’s boring. It’s not necessary. It’s outdated. It’s hard. Of course, Filipino is our national language. It is mandatory that we study it in full and in depth. The fact remains that the content and methods used in the subject may already be out of touch with the world of our students. One way you, as a Filipino teacher, can bridge the gap between the subject you are passionate about and the reality of your students is to go digital. While you may be using content from books and you wish your students to do the same, you have to accept that part of your students’ reality is virtual reality. Information is available online. Instead of scolding them, you can provide a guide for them in seeking information on Filipino online. Below are some safe Internet places for you and for them to visit, explore and use. WIKIPILIPINAS.ORG I’m sure you’ve heard a lot about Wikipedia. Y...

Facts About Saprophytes

Facts about Saprophytes Saprophytes are living organisms that obtain nutrients from dead organic matter and act as decomposers competing with the heavy rainfall that constantly washes away nutrients on the forests floor. The term saprophyte is usually referred to saprophytic fungi or saprophytic bacteria. Before dwelling in detail what is a saprophyte, it is useful to have a clear-cut definition for saprophyte. “Saprophyte is an organism, especially a fungus or bacterium that grows on and derives its nourishment from dead or decaying organic matter.”(American Heritage Medical Dictionary) “An organism that lives on organic matter” (Mosby’s Medical Dictionary) In a way the term ‘saprophytes’ is a misnomer because, ‘phytes’ means ‘plants’, but saprophytes describes organisms feeding on decaying organic matter and generally the term refers to fungi and bacteria with such feeding behavior and they cannot be considered as...

How to Deal with a Smart Aleck in Class Part 1

Find x. This is a standard mathematical statement used in algebra problems. It seems innocuous enough to write on the board or use in an exam. Until the smart aleck pounces! “Here it is, duh?” What’s the difference between nouns and pronouns? After a successful lesson in grammar, students will definitely differentiate the two correctly. Until the smart aleck attacks! “Obviously they have different spellings.” A smart aleck in class can tear apart a newbie teacher who has not seen much of the various personalities of the classroom and is not equipped to deal with traps. A smart aleck can also intimidate the more experienced teachers and lead them to tears—or rage! Dealing with a smart alecky student is a delicate business. For one thing, smart alecks make the class laugh, and you don’t want to get on the bad side of an amused group of students mercifully waken from stupor. On the other hand, some witty remarks end up embarrassing you or ...

Fun Outdoor Trigonometry Experiments Part 1

As if adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing numbers AND letters (okay, variables) wasn't enough torture already, Mathematicians came up with trigonometry. Trigonometry is, simply put, the study of triangles and the relationships of the sides and angles of these triangles. The subject seems easy enough for your unsuspecting students, and at first, going back to drawing triangles will seem fun if not easy. Then come the hard parts, and they will start to realize that trigonometry isn't JUST about triangles. After the triangles come the circles. After the circles come the waves. By that time, your students might already be swept away in the concepts and computations. Just because trigonometry calls for drawings, graphs and calculations doesn't mean your students should be cooped up in the classroom. Here are some simple experiments you can do outside the class that can teach the concepts of trigonometry and show how Math does exist in the real world. Measuring Experiments The ...

Management of Public Elementary and Secondary School Canteen

A few years back, all public elementary and secondary schools in the Philippines were ordered to put up a canteen through a DepEd Memorandum. There were guidelines to be followed according to the memorandum such as; the school canteen should be manage by TLE teachers in high school and by EPP teachers in elementary; junk foods and soft drinks are prohibited, vendors are not allowed inside the school premises, there should be a hand wash area, the canteen must get a sanitary permit from the local government and many others. There are two types of school canteen management in the Philippine public elementary and secondary schools – the first is the cooperative type and the second is the school manage type. Currently, the second type is the school canteen management that is implemented in our school. Before, our School Canteen is being managed by a Canteen Manager which is elected by the members of the cooperative (faculty & staff). She has four (4) helpers. The salaries of th...

The Parts of Speech and Their Function in the Sentence

There are 8 parts of speech with different functions in a sentence. Parts of speech include nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. Without these parts of speech a sentence cannot be formed or completed. Nouns are name words that name a person, an animal, a thing, a place or an event. The noun in the sentence could either be singular or plural. It could also be common or proper, or could be mass or count. Nouns also have genders that tells about being a man, a woman, or both man or woman or a thing. Nouns are very important in sentences because they are the name words in the sentence. Pronouns are substitutes for nouns. They are words that make writing better as they eliminate repetitive use of name words. The disadvantage of using pronouns is that the reader will be left to guess which is being talked about. Sometimes they have to go back to see who was being mentioned in the story. There is no clarity as to whom the writer is refer...

5 Things That Speed Up a Chemical Reaction

Sometimes when you are performing a chemistry experiment, or any experiment dealing with chemicals, you feel so frustrated that you wish you could magically speed up the reaction rate of the lab, and find out what the results would be. There are actually ways to speed up the reaction rate, and here are five things that speed up the reaction rate of an experiment. 1. The nature of the reactants: Some reactants are better at  reacting together. It just depends on the state of a particular reactant, and it also depends on the complexity of the bonds that you wish to break apart and/or form. If you want to break more bonds, it takes a longer time for the reaction to occur. Also, a reaction between two gases would be faster than a reaction between to liquids or two solids. 2. Temperature: Depending on the temperature of the reactants, the reaction rate will differ. The higher the temperature (or the hotter the reactant is), the quicker the reaction will occur. The cooler the reactant...

The Definition of Common Graduation Terminologies and Other Related Matters

Graduation time is on again in the Philippines and in other countries. It the west, they usually held their graduation ceremonies in the month of July because their summer starts on this month and ends in September. We often hear different terms during graduation time but many actually don’t know the meaning or origin of such words. There are also several other related terms such as toga, title of the graduation march and several other things that they are aware of. 1. Aida’s March What is the title of the song they play during graduation ceremonies? Many are not aware of the real title of this classical music. The usual or common title they know is “Graduation March”. This great piece of classical music is actually entitled “Grand March” from the opera “Aida”. It was composed by the world renowned Giuseppe Verdi. 2. Alma mater Alma mater is a Latin phrase which literally means “nourishing mother”. Alma mater is the educat...

Bulletin Board Ideas: Things That Hop

With the number of things on earth that could be great ideas for bulletin boards, it is sometimes very hard to think of the best idea to include in bulletin boards for preschoolers. The teacher must be innovative enough and tacky to handle situations like this. There are many ideas for pre-school bulletin boards. But the materials must be interesting so that the little kids will be interested and have fun looking at the bulletin board. Since preschoolers are still very young, they need more colorful things on the bulletin board. Little kids enjoy looking at colorful things no matter what they are. Things that hop is a good bulletin board idea. It is important for the young kids to be able to identify the things that hop in the bulletin board. To achieve this objective, you must use your resourcefulness. Here are some things that hop that you can use in the bulletin board. Frog The first thing that children relate to the word hop is frog. Except for a few kids who do not l...

Aids to Facilitate Effective Teaching: The Recitation

                           Image Credit Any teacher if he has to teach effectively must know how to conduct recitations, makes and asks good questions and gives interesting and challenging assignments. Specific guidelines and procedures as well as cautions are necessary and well provided in each area. The new teacher, and even experienced old teachers, will find this literature a rich mine of information about every teaching tool. A careful study of each area will undoubtedly solve multifarious problems that the teacher may encounter in this multifaceted activity. The recitation as a teaching tool is viewed to be a common teaching technique in a period of class instruction. It is the most visible manifestation of the teaching-learning situation. It helps pupils/students in learning every aspect of the subject matter to clarify abstract concepts and ideas. Recitation has been used in all levels of learning as an...

The Benefits of Having Homework

Studies have proven that homework does improve the stability of students in school. According to Cooper’s much-cited review of homework studies, there have been 20 studies since 1962 that compared the achievement of students who received homework and achievement of students who did not. Results are that 14 of the studies showed benefit in doing homework, while 6 did not. This further strengthens the statement “Time spent completing homework is time well spent.". Homework is an important and valuable component of learning. It teaches the students important life skills that they will need to apply even when they become working adults, especially time management, prioritizing work, as well as values, namely responsibility and self-discipline. By doing homework, they will start to develop time management. They will start to allocate their time for leisure pursuits and completing their homework. Through this, the students will be able to learn the value of self-discipline as th...

Classroom Management Key Factors

                 Image Credit The management of a classroom includes control of its physical conditions, proper utilization of materials for instruction, classroom routine and discipline. The physical aspects include the location, size, shape, lighting and illumination, ventilation, acoustics, and provisions for sanitation. While the location and the size of the room are not within the teacher's control, the ingenious and creative teacher can transform even the dullest room in the building to be attractive, restful and comfortable. The educational climate of the room should be conducive to learning. The teacher has many opportunities for creating - with and for students - a classroom environment that promotes cooperative group learning experiences. "Classroom environment" encompasses four variables: the physical environment, the intellectual climate, the social climate and the emotional climate. The Intellectual Climate: T...

The Origin of the Philippine Islands

The origin of the Philippines has many versions and theories. This includes some myths about the country. According to a popular myth that explains the origin of the Philippines, the Philippines was formed a long time ago when there was no land on earth and what existed were only the sky, the sea and a flying bird. The bird had been flying since it was created so it got tired one day and tried to find a place to rest but unfortunately there was nowhere to rest. The bird then thought of a way to make the sky and the sea fight each other. This started the fight of the sea and the sky. According to the tale, the sky was only a little higher from the sea so when they quarreled the sea lashed great waves to hurt the sky. In order to avoid getting hurt and wet, the sky went higher and higher, but the sea made bigger waves until the sky rained down big rocks to stop the turbulent sea. The rocks that the sky had rained down became the Philippine Archipelago. Aside from the myth there ...

Effective Teaching Methods: Criteria for Selecting Tests

                      Image Credit The two major criteria for selecting tests are reliability and validity. No matter what type of test one uses, it should be reliable and valid. Reliability means that the test yields similar results when it is repeated over a short period of time or when different form is used. It is used for measuring the accuracy and consistency with which a measuring device measures what it purports to measure. A reliable test can be viewed as consistent, dependable and stable. Validity means that the test does measure what it is represented as measuring. It is used for measuring the degree to which measuring instrument measures what it purports to measure. Test reliability can be improved by the following factors: Increased number of tests items: Reliability is higher when the number of items is increased, because the test involves a larger sample of the subject matter covered. Heterogeneity ...

The American Old West: Ten Reasons Why You Wouldn't Want to Live There

The Old West has been romanticized in countless books, movies and television shows. In reality, the American West of the 19th and early 20th centuries could be a very inhospitable, foreboding and primitive place. Here are ten reasons why today's modern-day person would not want to reside in the American Old West. Lack of Indoor Plumbing  Today's citizens take for granted the miracle of indoor plumbing. In the Old West, however, outhouses and makeshift outdoor latrines were the norm, making for a smelly, nasty and disease-infested experience, particularly in many of the mining boom towns whose public streets reeked with open sewage. Outhouses were still common in the 1930s, so ask some of the old-timers which they prefer, these odious wooden shacks or today's indoor facilities? Old West Medical Services In many parts of the Old West medical services were practically nonexistent. And if one could locate the services of a physician, th...

The Social Sciences: What Are Their Branches and Functions?

Wikipedia uses the following to define the social sciences: The social sciences are the fields of academic scholarship that explore aspects of human society. "Social science" is commonly used as an umbrella term to refer to a plurality of fields outside of the natural sciences. These include: anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, linguistics, political science, international studies and, in some contexts, psychology. Wisegeek.com provides the following definition: The social sciences are one of three divisions of science, along with natural science and formal science. Social science concerns itself with human aspects of the world, like the arts and humanities, although social science places more effort on experimentation and the scientific method. Because the methods used the social sciences are often qualitative and based more on personal interpretation, they are often referred to as the “soft sciences” in contrast to the “hard” natural a...

The Chamar Regiment of the Indian Army: Raising and Disbandment

Background The British Raj lasted for close to 200 years. During this period the British laid the foundation of the present Indian army. However the British laid down a selective recruitment policy. Their policy embraced two major concepts. a) The British by virtue of their experience in India enunciated the concept of martial and non-martial races. They considered the Sikhs, Jats, Rajputs, Punjabi's, Gurkha, Maharatta etc as martial races and only recruited from them for the British Indian army. b) The British maintained caste and class based regiments. Thus the Indian army had Sikh regiments, Rajput regiments etc. This militated against the Principles of War, but in actual battle conditions these caste based regiments were very successful. Many regiments covered themselves glory. World War II  The British were happy with the force level of the Indian army which was about 450,000.  This army served the British cause and also helped fight oversea wars for the British fro...

Facilitate Effective Teaching: Factors That Influence an Effective Recitation

              Image Credit There are certain factors that are to be identified and considered to insure the success of the recitation. Among these are: Good Learning Environment The classroom should be free from any form of distraction, whether inside or outside. An ideal setting for a good recitation conducive to learning is a quiet, well-kept, clean, well-lighted, well-ventilated and with cool and pastel colors on the walls of the classroom. Proper Class Management A properly managed class is usually free from distraction. In some cases, because the teacher lacks mastery of the subject matter, contribute to class distraction. Interest and Enthusiasm are Contagious Interest and enthusiasm usually excite involvement. A resourceful and dedicated teacher to his profession always motivates the learners by using teaching aids and devices to arouse and sustain the interests of the class. A healthy teacher is always enthusiastic to give his best ...

The Three Estates of the Feudal System of France During the French Revolution

There are three main interpretive perspectives that concern the French Revolution. These perspectives are the three estates of France. The first estate and second estate were comprised of the upper class – the nobility and clergy. The third estate was comprised of artisans, peasants, and the working class. As with all feudal systems, the upper classes did not have to pay taxes and had all the advantages, while the hardest working, and yet poorer, folks were left in even tighter straits because of their richer counterparts. Eventually this would lead to bitterness and constraint, which in turn would emerge into full revolt and rebellion. The first estate included King Louis XVI and his clerics. These people never paid taxes and, in essence, did the least amount of work. In a time of famine and bad harvest, they squandered countless quantities of money on superfluous causes and selfish indulgences. They ate exceptionally well and were clothed and sheltered in the best of circumsta...

The Greatest Contributions of the Sumerians + Interesting Facts

The Sumerians were the first major group of people who occupied the so-called “Fertile Crescent”, a fertile region in the Middle East known historically as Mesopotamia, now part of Iraq. Mesopotamia is a place located between two rivers – Tigris and Euphrates. Mesopotamia means –“land between two rivers”.  The annual overflowing or flooding of these twin rivers caused the farmlands suitable for farming. Among the most famous cities established by the Sumerians include Erech, Eridu, Kish, Larsa, Lagash, Nippur, Umma, Ur and many others. They were polytheists – believing in many gods and goddesses. Because of frequent fighting, the Sumerians became weak and were easily conquered by invading enemies.  Despite their lack of unity, the Sumerians left a handful of significant contributions to civilization. These contributions were the basis of many developments in science, technology and others. Image Source Here are some inter...

Facilitate Effective Teaching: Functions of The Assignment

                    Image Credit In order that the assignment will serve its purposes, it must be purposive; it is the paramount duty of the teacher to ensure that all assigned learning tasks are important and meaningful to the learners. There are a number of functions of assignments. These are: To set the goal or direction of the learning task: The learners are supposed to know what the learning activity is all about. The assigned task must be clear, definitive and purposive. To stimulate logical and creative thinking: It is also an opportunity to train and develop good habits. To recall previous lessons in preparation for a long test or it may be recall for organization of ideas and concepts and other relevant information To motivate the learners and prepare them for the learning task to be done: The preparation includes giving the background, the coverage and difficulty of the activity, why they are suppos...

Pupils Common Behavior Issues In The Classroom

Behavior issues in the classroom happen nearly every day. This isn't surprising by instructors because pupils clearly can get a sense of immunity to you in due period. And it is common dynamics for them to become somehow influenced within the route of noisiness and stubbornness over time. Being a teacher our position is indeed huge. We are not just attempting to teach them instructions that they signed up and also life overall. Over instructing, we're presently there to direct them as well as discipline all of them in order that the class setting will never be interrupted as well as ruined. Thus, as a very first approach to slowly resolve this specific common teacher issue, it is advisable to recognize the various kinds of behaviors issues in the classroom. As a result will set the difference of what exactly is regarded as interfering with as well as the ones are not. · Issue #1: Noisy pupils. Noise is a thing that must be modulated especially in a class environment. An inst...

How to Make Silver Solder Flux

Flux is an agent used to bond two or more metals when they have been melted and soldered. Flux helps to clean impurities and oxidation from the surfaces of those metals so that the solder can bond with the pure metal, creating a strong connection. It also helps solder to flow more easily. Otherwise, it would form beads, or lumps. Metal workers, jewelers, and crafters use flux frequently and it is possible to make your own flux at home with only a few key ingredients. Here is a step by step guide on how to make your own flux from the comfort of your kitchen. Using solder is used by everyone that is in electronics, from soldering to a circuit, to the home hobbyists and amateur radio operators. The need to make a good electrical connection between two copper pieces of wire is important. Without a good connection, there can be a bad connection that causes what you are building to not work. It is also important to use a good soldering iron or soldering gun to make sure the heat is pr...

Teaching Virtues and Character in the Classroom

Due to the fact that many children come from rough neighborhoods filled with violence and self-destruction, it is imperative that we teach good character and virtues in the classroom. Such examples include empathy, moral reasoning, and self-control, responsibility to us and to others. We must not waiver since the teacher cannot do it alone. It should be the motto and policy of the school to implement these with support from the Superintendent down to the teachers and supporting facility while getting parents on board.   According to Kohn (1997): At weekly public ceremonies, certain children receive a leaf that will then be hung in the Forest of Virtue. The virtues themselves are "not open to debate," the headmaster insists, since moral precepts in his view enjoy the same status as mathematical truths (para. 8). Kohn sees that if the virtues are not open to debate, all students will be required to follow the same rules and responsibilities which infuse the core virtues he instil...

The Distinguishing Elements of the Learners in Learning

Learners differ from the other learners in different aspects. It is very important for somebody to notice it especially for the one that will be going to teach. There are those learners that learn immediately while others find it hard to understand. Some learners need learning assistance and providing this assistance needs the knowledge about certain elements that varies learners to learners. There are certain elements that distinguish the learner individually in the aspect of learning. These distinguishing elements are the individual ability, aptitude, interest, family and cultural background and the attitude. The learners have different abilities, they have different aptitude, they have different interest, they have different family and cultural background as well as different attitudes and these differences provide impact on individual learning process. Different learners differ from their ability in learning. The ability is one of the factors that will dictate an individual&rsquo...

What is Pygmalion Effect and How Teachers Can Use It to Achieve Better Performance Among Students?

We know that more positive you are in your approach towards your career or teaching, more successful and a better teacher you are. So having believe in what you are doing reflects in your behaviour and your dealing with students. Having faith that your students are cabable of doing better brings positive results and it is the term called 'The Pygmalion effects'. According to the definition by wikipedia: The Pygmalion effect, or Rosenthal effect, refers to the phenomenon in which the greater the expectation placed upon people, often children or students and employees, the better they perform. The effect is named after Pygmalion, a Cypriot sculptor in a narrative by Ovid in Greek mythology, who fell in love with a female statue he had carved out of ivory. Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson (1968/1992) report and discuss the Pygmalion effect at length.  In their study, they showed that if teachers were led to expect enhanced performance from some children, then the children did i...

Teaching ESL: The Do's and Don'ts of Teaching English to Foreign Students

Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) may have a few similarities with teaching the English subject to native speakers, but the list could go on and on as to how different it really is. For one thing, teaching ESL conforms not to the conventional principles of teaching and therefore calls for specialized teaching strategies which are targeted towards addressing the specific learning needs of foreign ESL students. When considering the prospect of teaching English to foreign students, a teacher should bear in mind that his students are natives of other nations. They have diverse cultures that are most likely different from the teacher’s; their orientation of things may minimally or to an extent be in conflict with that of the teacher’s opinions. An ESL teacher, therefore, is expected to define which actions are acceptable in his practice of profession. Here are some guidelines on what to do and what not to do when teaching English to foreign students: Do… 1....

Survival Phrases for ESL Teachers

Whether you are staying abroad or just living in your own country to teach ESL -- may it be that you’re handling a man-to-man class, group class or (online) video class -- as an ESL teacher, you need survival phrases to help you communicate effectively with your students. These survival phrases are expressions in the native language of your ESL students. They vary from Spanish, Russian, German, Japanese, Korean to Chinese languages. There is a vast selection of available resources which provide these survival phrases for ESL teachers. If you’re an ESL teacher looking for such phrases to use, you could easily conduct a research online for these, or you could go conventional with self-help audio books and translator dictionaries. Foreign students find it easier to learn the English language when their teachers use their native language to cite and explain English words and sentences. Most institutions do not allow teachers to utilize this strategy, but many teachers agree t...

How to Deal with a Smart Aleck in Class Part 2

In the first part of this two-part article on dealing with smart alecks in the classroom, we learned about how teachers should initially react to such a behavior. Here are more tips: React with wit. You can respond to a smart alecky behavior with wisdom—by giving the class a lesson on values ed and proper decorum—or you can react with your own witty retort. It’s part of playing along IF you are known to be a jester yourself. Knowing what jest will work can keep the class entertained but still focused. Direct the expression to the entire class, too, and not just to the smart aleck. Resist the temptation of turning an instance into an endless Battle of Wits ala Flip Top style. When a student whines, “But it’s so boring!” saying, “Let’s see if your report card will be entertaining!” is probably not a good retort. Address the situation with wit, not with malice. Hold your tongue. If humoring a group is not exactly your forte, then may...

100+ Summer Travel, Entertainment, and Tech Discounts for Teachers and Educators

Being a teacher is one of the most important jobs out there. From shaping young minds to offering your guidance, wisdom, and advice, the role of the 3.1 million teachers bolstering our communities in the US simply cannot be understated. It’s also an incredibly challenging role, demanding long hours in and outside of the workplace and a tremendous amount of planning. Thankfully, in honor of your hard work and your services, there are tons of businesses out there that want to reward you with discounts on stuff like books, school supplies, and even amusement park tickets.One of the biggest perks of being a teacher is that blissful stretch of summer from June through September when the weather is fine, the chalkboards are clean, and you’re finally, at long last, off-duty. And, what better way is there to celebrate your seasonal sabbatical than finding some great deals on travel and other summertime goods and services exclusively available for teachers like you? W...

The Essentials and Many Uses of Starch

Starch is the food material that is stored in plants and can be found in seeds, in roots, in tubers or in stems. It provides food for growing seeds and for plants during their resting period. Starch is an important food for people, too. It is the most important carbohydrate in the human diet. Starch, scientifically known as amylum, is the common name for a white, granular or powdery, odorless, tasteless carbohydrate. One notable characteristic of starch is – it does not dissolve in cold water, alcohol or ether. It does dissolve in hot water. Image Source What are the major sources of starch? Well, major sources of starch include; arrowroot, cassava, corn, potatoes, rice, sago palm, and wheat. Green plants during the process of photosynthesis make starch. It forms part of the cell walls in plants. Our body gets energy from the starch found in plants. People eat starch in its natural form in potatoes, rice and other starchy vegetables. Flour is a starch made from the seeds of ...

Characteristics of a Good Primary Education Classroom

The primary purpose of the classroom is to provide the students an ideal learning environment. This can be achieved by ensuring the presence or absence of certain factors that directly or indirectly affect the learning of students. To make the environment conducive for learning, teachers must manipulate all the resources available to them to achieve the ideal classroom. 1. Walls, ceiling and floors The boundaries of the classroom serve as the barrier that keeps outside distractions out and student’s attention in. The important thing to remember is to prevent these boundaries from becoming distractions themselves. Bright colors of paint such as red and neon green are not ideal. Choose earth colors because they are more natural to the students’ vision. Having too many decorations can also be distracting. Detailed illustrations of popular cartoon characters for example, may be inviting but having the students’ attention in these decorations during class can become coun...

How to Teach Intellectual Honesty and Discourage Plagiarism

Intellectual honesty is an important value that goes beyond paraphrasing, citing sources and condemning plagiarism. It's a value that also requires skill to be realized. In the classroom, you can teach intellectual honesty and discourage plagiarism by fostering good values and necessary academic skills. What is intellectual honesty? Why is it set apart from plain old honesty? What is plagiarism and why should we discourage plagiarism? I found two definitions and discussions that encapsulate the intellectual or academic aspect and the value-laden aspect of intellectual honesty. For the more practical aspect, which addresses the value in school context, Dalhouse University defines intellectual honesty this way: "Academic integrity means that we are honest and accurate in creating and communicating all academic products. Acknowledgement of other people’s work must be done in a way that does not leave the reader in any doubt as to whose work it is. Academic integrity means t...

Facilitate Effective Teaching: Uses of Questions

               Image Credit There are various uses of the question that the teacher can utilize to obtain desirable results. These are: To stimulate the learners to think: One of the most common problems arising in the teaching-learning process is the inability of the teacher to get learners to think intensively about a given topic for the day. The effective use of thought provoking questions may serve to remedy this problem. To motivate the learners’ interest: Interesting and challenging questions can be used effectively to arouse, hold and sustain interest of the learners. An example of a motivating, holding and sustaining question to capture the interest of the class in health education after a unit on health problems has been identified. Example: "If you were an officer in your community representing the youth, what recommendations would you offer to improve its health conditions?" To diag...

Advantages of Classroom Education

There has long been a debate between children going to school or being home-schooled. Some feel that being schooled at home as advantages over going to a school. One stated advantage is that the child gets undivided attention in learning without the problem of over crowding in a regular school. Another advantage of being taught at home is that the parent has control over the curriculum and not having to worry about what the schools are actually teaching. Another advantage to home schooling is something new. The very real threat of violence at schools, as this has become a very real concern today. One disadvantage of a child being taught at home is that it can isolate a child from neighborhood kids and friends. This can possibly cause a child to feel left out or lonely. Here are the advantages of going to a traditional school: • Education through a traditional school classroom setting gives you an on hand or actual experience of the whole learning process and activities. &bull...

The Different Manifest Functions of Education

There are manifest functions of education; these are promoting social and political integration, social control, as an agent of change, as an agent of transmitting culture, socialization and as an agent of social placement. By transforming the diverse ethnic groups and religious groups of the society into one society that shares a common identity; education and the educational institution promotes the political and social integration of the society. It serves as an agent that is responsible in integrating the different factions of society into a single one that shares some common identity. By teaching some values such as discipline, punctuality, obedience, perseverance, respect and the like, and by teaching conformity through encouraging young people to be a good student, to be a law-abiding citizen and to be a good citizen, schools and educational institution become an agent of social control. Education, as an institution teaches the young to be noble and to be a good and well devel...

Cherokee Leader Junaluska Saves Andrew Jackson

Junaluska – great leader of the Cherokee and friend to Andrew Jackson. It's hard to imagine what North Carolina and the rest of the East Coast must have looked like when the Cherokee were the stewards of the land. When virgin forests of enormous Chestnut, Oak and Poplar, the height and breadth never before or since seen, stretched unbroken from the border of Canada to the peninsula of Florida. Early settlers to the area claimed that a squirrel could travel from coast to coast and never touch the ground. Pristine fish filled streams and rivers flowed cold, pure and unencumbered through the great forests and emptied into an abundant sea. Elk, mountain buffalo, deer and bear roamed the land and waterfowl covered the waters. This is the land that greeted Junaluska in 1776 when he was born into the Eastern Band of the Cherokee in the mountains of North Carolina. Throughout his early years and into his adult life Junaluska exhibited traits of leadership and, when the time came, assum...

Animals That Cry Just Like Humans

Crying, as much as it does have its benefits, is not always carried out on impulse but for a variety of reasons. Whether by humans or any other animals; there is always a reason for crying. Why do humans cry? Humans cry when they lose a loved one to death; when they are heartbroken; when they are filled with joy; etc. Humans have a variety of reasons for crying. But, have you ever wondered if animals cry? Do animals really cry; and why? In the first instance, let’s make one thing very clear. Animals do cry; and for a variety of reasons just like humans. In this article we will answer the questions and clarify the fact that animals do cry; and we will look into some instances of animals that actually cry. Actual cases of animals crying All animals can shed tears. Tears are an important protection and lubricant for the eyes. They flush out irritants and keep the eyes wet to enhance vision. Before now, scientists presume that only humans cry “emotional” tears while a...

Where Are the Descendants of Maharajah Ranjit Singh, Ruler of the Sikh Empire

Maharajah Ranjit Singh died on 27 June, 1839 and after his death within a span of 10 years the Sikh empire disintegrated and Punjab was annexed by the British. Ranjit Singh had 7 sons from different wives. Sher Singh was the eldest and succeeded Ranjit Singh. He was a drunkard and addicted to drugs and soon died.  His other six sons also did not survive long and in 1845 the youngest son Dalip Singh aged 7 from Maharani Jindan Kaur was crowned maharajah. After the second Sikh war he was deposed and put under the protection of the crown.  Dalip Singh was separated from his mother who escaped to Nepal where she was given refuge by the King of Nepal Raja Tirath.  Dalip Singh was put in the care of Dr John Login, who took him to Fatehgarh a small town in north India, close to Kanpur. Dalip Singh grew up in a Christian environment and converted to Christianity. In 1854 he was given permission by Lord Dalhousie, the Governor General to go to England. He arrived in England and...

Ten Most Notorious Outlaw Biker Gangs

The outlaw biker gang can trace its origins to the period after World War II where returning veterans and other roadies began to organize themselves in clubs, pining for the freedom, action and nonconformity that the motorcycle offered. One of the seminal events in outlaw biker history was "The Hollister Riot," which took place over the July Fourth 1947 holiday weekend in Hollister, California, where a reported 4,000 motorcycle enthusiasts invaded the small town. The ensuing ruckus was later sensationalized in the July 21, 1947, issue of Life magazine, marking a famous milestone in biker history. The Hollister Gypsy Tour, as the event was billed, included the Boozefighters, a South Central Los Angeles motorcycle club founded in 1946 by World War II vet William "Wino Willie" Forkner (1921-1997). Forkner reveled in his reputation as a biker hellraiser, and reportedly served as the inspiration for Lee Marvin's Chino character in...

APA Formatting in a Nutshell

APA formatting changes just when we all get used to how it works.  Here are a few tips on how to get through APA formatting with most of your hair intact.   Simply put, you have to be sure that your formatting is as perfect as it can be otherwise the peers that review your article, or the instructor who reads your paper is likely to either turn the paper back to you for revision, or mark off for little process and formatting errors. Here is a short list of the biggest issues within APA formatting.  I'm also including links to a great site that has all the answers for APA formatting.  APA formatting tips, for APA ver 6.0  (Required for all 2009 - Present APA documents) Definitions: **Citation, in-text citation:  The short version of where you got your information from.  You use only the last name and the date of the publication.  If the publication is a book, then include the page number.  The period goes at the end of the close par...

Tragedy of the Commons: A Review

One of the classic readings in environmental science, the Tragedy of the Commons by Garret Hardin reflects how current issues on population, pollution and natural resource management are being dealt with today. Published in Science in 1968, this article advances the idea that not all of human problems can be addressed by technical solutions and that human freedom must have limits to sustain the life support systems. Finiteness of Natural Resources Hardin emphasizes the finiteness of resources as opposed to frontier thinking where natural resources are regarded as inexhaustible. As the human population increases in number, greater demand for goods and services which are drawn out from the surrounding environment is required to supply those needs. For many years, the products derived from different ecosystems are free to access and use by the people. These resources are termed collectively as “commons”, available to everyone upon demand. But earth has its limits, the geom...