Learning Articles & Consumer Guides

Why Education is Important to One's Success in Life?

Having a good education is important to one's success in life. Education is the key to success, without a good education you will find it hard to achieve success in one's life. A good education is important because you will be able to think for yourself and communicate intelligently to other people. Persons who don`t have a good education background will have a difficult time finding jobs and also will earn less money. If a person is unable to reason and think for himself then that person will have problem in finding and keeping a job. They will not be very successful in life until they improve their educational background. Jobs are hard to get, and the employers will seek the most qualified and intelligent person to fill the vacancy because of the competition out there. It is never too late to get an education, once you gained a good education background it stays with you for life. So if you need to improve or get a good education now. Most jobs are not employing people with the...

Thank You Messages for Nursery Teachers

If you are a looking for messages to thank the nursery teacher of your kid, then you have reached the right spot. In this article you will find an excellent collection of thank you messages for nursery teachers. Read on to find the best message to convey your gratitude and thanks to the nursery teachers. When you observe that your child is singing the Alphabet Song and reciting 1-10 numbers then, you should be thankful to your child’s nursery teacher. Here is a beautiful selection of great thank you messages for nursery teachers. 1 Many thanks to you teacher (name). My child (name) continues to be very smart recently. At home, I can even hear him/her singing the alphabet song and reciting a nice short-poem. Thank you so much Teacher (name) for all your efforts and dedication in teaching your nursery pupils including my son/ daughter. 2 Good day Teacher (name)! I’m the mommy of (name of the child) and I would like to personally thank you for doing such a good job. I can t...

Thank You Messages for Lecturers/Teachers

Teachers are very special. Saying “thank you” to teacers/lecturers is the very least yet very sweet and thoughtful that we can do. Teachers are among the greatest people in our world; they are devoted and fully committed when it comes to nurturing one’s learning. Here is a collection of some splendid thank you messages that you can send to your lecturers or teacher. Read on to find the perfect thank you message for your dear lecturer and teacher. 1 Thank you for being such a good lecturer. You have educated me countless lessons in academic as well as lessons in life as well! I really value you in so many ways because without having you my dear teacher, I’m nothing! 2 Hello Teacher (name). You are such an inspiration to me! You’re teachings are great and indeed very useful in my life. Thank you for being so dedicated in your job. 3 Thank you for everything! We are so lucky to have a lecturer like you! 4 Hello to my dearest teacher! I just want to thank...

A Teacher's Guide: Tips on Writing an Organized Five Paragraph Essay

As a teacher of elementary and middle school students, one hurdle is teaching the skills to write an organized five paragraph essay.  While there are many different methods to choose from, there is a simple formula that can be applied every time.  By creating a strong thesis statement, using a graphic organizer, and implementing the introduction-body-conclusion format, your students can produce a well written five paragraph essay for any writing assignment. The Thesis Statement is the backbone of any well written essay. As defined by Webster's Online Dictionary; "A thesis statement is the main point that is to be proven by an essay. Usually backed up by examples, the thesis statement is the theme of that whole piece."  By dividing the thesis statement into three parts, you have effectively mapped out the three body paragraphs of the essay.  This is often referred to as a 'three-prong' thesis statement.  Each 'prong' or point mentioned in the thesis i...

How to Pass the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET)

Young or old, fresh graduate or teacher for many years, in order to be a licensed teacher, one needs to pass the board exam for teachers or the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET). To test-takers, the mere idea of taking a comprehensive exam is enough to make one shiver and sweat. All the more if the exam lasts an entire day! I took the LET in October 2009—and PASSED! Read about my personal experience here. Here are some tips and tricks that can help you review, prepare and even pass! Familiarize yourself with the LET’s table of specifications and point system. The table of specifications, as every teacher should know, identifies the topics covered by a test and how much weight each topic is given. Every board exam has one. A copy of the LET coverage (updated November 2011) is included in the “kit” the PRC gave you after your application. The general distribution of items is: General Education, 150 items; Professional Education, 150 items; Major or...

Advantages of School Field Trips

  Exposing students to an actual and hands-on learning experience like a school field trip is an effective method of teaching. It is effective in a sense that it is entirely a different experience and new approach for children to acquire knowledge while having fun and relaxation at the same time.  Here are the advantages of having a school field trip: Field trips give students the opportunity to visit new places and new environment. It erases the boredom of classroom lectures, especially on their most hated subject and teacher, even just for a day. New environment means new challenges that awaken students’ interest to learn and get new learning information. For young students, field trip is a day off from class or a no class at all activity. It is more about enjoyment, excitement, fun, fun and more fun without the pressure of being called to answer a question or be given a surprise quiz. They get the opportunity to interact with one another in a more informal, nat...

Objective Tests: Guidelines for Writing Matching Type and Multiple-Choice Questions

                     Image Credit Matching Type Questions These are used to measure the learners' thinking at the lower levels of knowledge and comprehension. They are relatively easy to construct and can be corrected quickly. In a matching test, there are usually two columns of items. For each item in one column, the students are required to select a correct item. The items may be names, concepts, places, phrases or events. To discourage guessing, the teacher should put more responses on the right-hand column than the left-hand column. It is important that the entire test appears on the same page so that the learners will not turn the page back and forth when searching for the right answer. One problem of matching test is that it often requires recall rather than comprehension and more sophisticated levels of thinking. Higher levels of cognition may be called for in matching questions that involves analogies, cause and eff...

The Elements of the Teaching and Learning Process

Teaching and learning involves the process of transferring knowledge from the one who is giving to the one who is receiving. Teaching process cannot be performed if there is one element that is missing among the three of the teaching and learning elements. There is what we called as elements of teaching and learning processes. These elements are necessary to be able to make teaching and learning possible. Without one of these elements, there could be no real teaching or learning process that will exist. It is so important that the presence of these elements is present in the process of teaching, considering that all of them play an important role in the system The elements of teaching and learning process are the teacher, the leaner as well as the good learning environment. It is being considered that learning occur when there is established relationship among these three elements. The teaching as well as the learning activity depends upon how these elements works together. The teac...

K+12 Education in the Philippines

The Enhanced K+12 Basic Education Program in the Philippines has been officially started. It has been initiated by the Aquino administration where students will have to undergo a new system of education. This program will require all incoming students to enroll into two more years of basic education. Thus, the K+12 System will basically include the Universal kindergarten, 6 years of elementary, 4 years of junior high school with an additional 2 years for senior high school. Moreover, the program aims to uplift the quality of education in the Philippines in order for graduates to be easily employed. The program also aims to meet the standards required for professionals who would want to work abroad. Most importantly, the system aims to fully enhance and develop the students in order for them to be well-prepared especially in emotional and cognitive aspects. Through this, graduates will be able to face the pressures of their future workplace. However, not all are in favor of the K+12...

The Development of the Educational System in the Philippines

The educational system in the Philippines had undergone various stages of development. These stages of educational evolution can be traced way back from the Pre-Spanish period, to the Spanish Period, to the American period, to the Commonwealth and the Japanese period going to the present. There is no definite information about the system of education in the Philippines during the Pre-Spanish period. According to the history, the Philippine education had manifested in the culture of the people. However, there are no definite records that were available showing the types of schools that were established by the natives, as well as on the subjects or methods that they used. There were Written and Oral literatures but all of the records that were written were accordingly destroyed by the Spanish colonizers; this was because they believed that those written records in literature were works of devils. Some of the Oral literatures have been preserved until today and these are in the forms ...

Classroom Discipline: Common Types of Disciplinary Problems

                    Image Credit Discipline is one of the major areas of concern for teachers especially the new ones. Discipline refers to the order which is necessary in the classroom for students learning to occur effectively. Order is needed in the classroom to facilitate the teaching-learning process. If the learning activities are well-planned and prepared, the presentation elicits and maintains students' attention, interest and involvement, if the activities are challenging and offer realistic opportunities for success, then order will be established. Discipline, as applied to classroom instruction, is any means or device adopted by the teacher to achieve orderly behavior of the learners. Today, some educational authorities agree that a classroom has a good discipline when the learners are eagerly and earnestly performing their learning tasks. The ultimate objective of discipline is to help the learners develop ethical cha...

Objective Types of Test: Guidelines for Writing Completion Questions and True-False Questions

                Image Credit Completion Questions These are useful in evaluating the learners' thinking at the lower cognitive levels of knowledge and comprehension. It is usually difficult to prepare completion items capable of testing higher level thinking abilities of the learners. Some authorities in administering tests believe that it is not easy to construct items with one correct logical answer. In the completion test, sentences are presented from which certain works have been omitted. The learner is to fill in the blank to complete the meaning. This type of short-answer question, sometimes called a fill-in-the-blank question, is suitable for measuring a wide variety of content. Although it usually tests recall of information, it can also demand thought and ability to understand relationships and make influences. Guidelines for Writing Completion Questions The direction "Fill in the blanks" is usually sufficient, b...

The Manifest Function of Education

Education plays significant roles in society. These roles have become important parts of nurturing the people towards their social development, towards their relationship with other people and towards the society itself. Education has different manifest function (Javier et al, 2002). These functions are social placement, promoting social and political integration, socialization, agent of change, transmitting culture and social control. It is because education and the educational institution identify the most possible qualified people that will fill the positions that are available in society, education is considered as one of the agent of social placement. Through education, one’s social status in the society had been identified. Education also promotes the integration of the social and political aspects of society. The educational institution functions to promote social as well as political integration in society. It is done by making the diverse religious and ethnic groups t...

Effective Teaching: General Principles in Test Construction

                      Image Credit There are fundamental principles that should be observed and guide the teachers when designing an assessment system as they prepare their own tests. Measure All Instructional Objectives Teacher should construct tests to measure clearly the prescribed learning objectives that have communicated and imparted to the learners. The test is designed as an operational control to guide the learning sequences and experience and should be in harmony with the teacher's instructional objectives. Cover All Learning Tasks A good learning task focus and measures a representative sample of the teacher's learning objectives. Use Appropriate Test Items A good test usually includes items that are most appropriate for a particular objective to check on learner achievement. Some test questions are better for measuring recall of specific information, while other types are good for tapping higher-level thinki...

Classroom Discipline: Causes of Disciplinary Problems

        Image Credit The common causes of disciplinary problems are findings from some researches. The teacher factor: The teacher can be a potent factor in causing disciplinary problems. The teacher's personality has bearing upon the learners which stem from two aspects - the teacher's personal characteristics and his scholastic qualifications. The physical characteristics include the teacher's personal appearance, poise, health, mannerisms, habits of neatness and cleanliness and well-modulated voice. The teacher who is suffering from chronic disease, for instance, asthma or ulcers might be late or absent very often. A mentally and emotionally healthy teacher can contribute to the intellectual and emotional development of the learners. A teacher who is cheerful, friendly, helpful and warm and tries to develop a spirit of camaraderie and unity in the classroom need not worry about having behavior problems. The teacher's scholastic qualifications can cause ...

Common Problems in Elementary Education

Elementary education prepares and introduces students to the very foundation of academic essentials. It is here where they receive a general education such as writing, reading, math, science, social studies and history. In this level of education, students are comprehensively trained for high school level and college curriculum. And as grade level advances, learning methods and materials intensify even more. Elementary education also known as primary educations is advantageous to students, however, there are some problems with elementary schooling that exist within the system. Learning Method Teachers in elementary education have a fixed method of transmitting learning information to students. In other words, the coursework is fixed. Teachers will teach in a manner that is effective and appeals to majority of his students. But this method won’t work effectively for other students who have their own unique learning style. Some students can learn and understand the lessons by m...

Effective Teaching Methods: Types of Evaluation

                  Image Credit Types of Evaluation Since evaluation is an integral part of the educative process, the teacher should guide every learning experience in relation to the needs and interest of the learners. Evaluation forms the basis for deciding what type of appraisal is needed to assess a particular learning situation. Diagnostic evaluation: This is the type of evaluation the teacher considers at the beginning of the unit or course to determine the different levels in terms of learning experience of children to serve as basis for grouping them - slow, average or fast. Diagnostic evaluation will also enable the teacher to ascertain or analyze the nature or cause of difficulties, and, in effect, help them plan remedial activities to meet their interests and needs. Formative evaluation: This type of evaluation the teacher performs the learning activities to find out how well he is doing and what is needed during...

Types of Teaching Lessons: Development Lesson

                  Image Credit The development lesson is type of something to be learned in which a new idea is presented and developed. It may be a concept, a principle, a theory, a skill or a generalization. The distinguishing characteristic of the development lesson is the novel idea which the class has not known yet and the interest and enthusiasm of the learners. There are two types of development lesson - the formal and informal. The formal development lesson utilizes deductive and inductive methods; while the informal development lesson does not use any particular method with definite steps. It usually uses the question and answer method or the conversational approach. The development method follows a certain procedure where the learners undergo the prescribed learning steps and processes in order to arrive in some insight and understanding, analysis, interpretation and generalization. It may also be noted that many lessons in t...

Types of Lesson: Appreciation Lesson

                   Image Credit An appreciation lesson is designed to instruct the class to understand, appreciate and enjoy something. In order to appreciate something, one must understand to enjoy. Appreciation is a combination of understanding and enjoyment. A learner who understands and finds easy solving arithmetic problems, may be actually enjoying it, and therefore, he appreciates it. An appreciation lesson should focus on developing desirable values. A good appreciation lesson should help learners to evaluate values and guide them make proper choices. Values that are experienced in individual conduct are characterized by goodness and uprightness. These desirable values inevitably make the learner's existence more meaningful and worth living. The primary objective of the teacher in appreciation lesson is to plan interesting lessons that will stimulate and induce learners to appreciate what is beautiful and worthwhile. The...

The Fundamental Equipment of the Learner in Learning

There are certain fundamental qualities of a learner that can be considered as the learner’s equipment in order for him of for her to absorbed knowledge in learning. These fundamental equipments are the learners cognitive as well as the learner’s appetitive faculties. These faculties will naturally help or guide the learner as he dealt with the learning process. The cognitive faculties of the learners included his or her five senses, his memory, his imagination, as well as his intellect. All of these faculties is related to the basic operation of the human brain and are necessary for the learning process. Through the learner’s five senses, the learners can be able to see, to hear, to taste and to smell. He or she can be able to grasp different information from his or her surrounding environment using these natural senses. With the learner’s imagination, he or she can be able to form pictorial representation of material objects in his or her mind. This ability...

Classroom Management: The Behavior Modification Approach

                     Image Credit This approach involves various techniques and methods, that ranges from simple rewards to elaborate reinforcement training. This behavior modification is rooted in the work of James Watson and B.F. Skinner and assumes that behavior is shaped by the environment and pays little attention to the causes of problems. Teachers utilizing this approach spend little time on the personal history of the learners or on searching for the reasons or causes brought about by a particular problem. Teachers strive to increase their involvement in the occurrence of appropriate behavior through a systematic and consistent system of giving rewards and to reduce the possibility of inappropriate behavior through punishment or penalty for misbehavior. The basic principles of the behavior modification approach are: The behavior is influenced and shaped by its consequences, and not the causes of problem brought...

Howard Giles' Accommodation Theory in Second Language Acquisition

The Accommodation Theory by Howard Giles  draws attention to the roles of socio-psychological attitudes, motivation, formal instruction, and larger community or environment in L2  learning.  And, the important features of this theory are embedded in the preceding variables.  First, I would like to discuss the roles of socio-psychological attitudes and motivation in second language acquisition (SLA).  Based on my experiences as an ESL teacher for more than 10 years, I’ve observed that second language learners (in-group) learn more effectively when there’s positive reinforcement in the classroom.  As Giles and Gardner consider, motivation is the premium mobile or primary determinant of L2 proficiency.        Second, the role of formal instruction inSLAis a sensitive issue.  Many language teachers fail to consider the importance of an accommodating lesson plan.  Formal instruction means the L2 is taught under th...

Classroom Management: Group Managerial Approach

               Image Credit The group managerial approach to discipline on classroom management is based on Jacob Kounin's research. He emphasized the importance of responding immediately to group student behavior that might be undesirable in order to prevent problems rather than having to deal with them after they come up. If a student misbehaves, and the teacher stops the misbehavior immediately, it remains an isolated incident and most likely, it will not develop into a problem. On the other hand, if the misbehavior is not noticed, is ignored or allowed to continue for too long, it might spread throughout the group and eventually becomes more serious and chronic. For Kouhin, classroom activities can be analyzed for purposes of management. It may be divided into two categories - of students’ behavior and teacher management behavior. Kouhin's behaviors and categories for observing classroom management include two major categories ...

Types of Teaching Lessons: Supervised Study Lesson

                 Image Credit This supervised study lesson is one whose primary objective is to teach learners how to study a given subject effectively under the direction and guidance of the teacher. The teacher gives the defined direction in relation to steps, methods and strategies and supervises the learning process. It is interesting to note that under the supervised study scheme, the learners are taught the techniques of learning while the teacher acts as a guide in the various steps and procedure in the classroom. Importance of Supervised Study The importances of supervised studies in college level are: The observation that a number of failures and dropouts in school are due to poor study habits. Some students just memorize facts and information without understanding them. Others just waste time because of lack of concentration on the learning tasks. Many hours especially in the rural and slum areas do not have adeq...

Classroom Management: The Business-Academic Approach

                      Image Credit A well-managed classroom that is free from disruptions, where students behave in an orderly manner and are involved enthusiastically in learning, exist where teachers have a clear idea of the type of classroom conditions, students’ behavior and instructional activities they wish to produce. This business-academic approach to classroom management was developed by Evertson and Emmer. The emphasis was on the organization and management of students as they engage in academic work. Evertson and Emmer divide organizing, and managing student work into three major categories - establishments and communication of work assignments; standards and procedures, monitoring of student work; and feedback to students. Clear Communication of Assignments and Work Requirements The teacher must define, establish and explain clearly to the learners work assignments, features of work, procedures, and prescr...

A Partial SWOT Analysis of Public and Private Education - Strengths and Weaknesses of the Private School System

Strengths of the Private School System A. Smaller physical plants are easier to maintain and clean. Generally speaking a private school will be cleaner and easier to maintain than a public school. A cleaner environment gives both teachers and students the feeling that they are in an academic environment conducive to teaching and learning rather than just as a social gathering place, as many public schools have become. B. Private schools are often safer that most public schools. This is primarily due to the smaller physical plant and lower student populations. When these two elements are present, it is easier for teachers and administrators to keep an eye on student movement and activities. This also translates to greater parental control. C. Better teacher/student ratios are available in private schools. This is one of the most important strengths of private schools when selling themselves to parents. There are few substitutes for teacher/student ratios that provide a bet...

Types of Lesson: Drill Lesson

                  Image Credit The drill lesson is intended for automatization of certain facts, information, habits, attitudes and skills to fix association for permanency or to perfect a certain degree a particular skill. Drills are necessary for mastery of historical facts and information and development of skills in some subject, example: typewriting, shorthand and mechanical activities in a vocational education laboratory. Drills are also needed for training verbal skills as pronunciation of foreign words. Characteristics of a Good Drill Mere repetition will not bring mastery of certain facts and information. For repetition to be effective, it must be within the interest and comprehension of the learners. There are certain guidelines to be observed and followed. Motivation Motivation arises from the learners' interest and expressed purposes. It is necessary to arouse the learners' sustained effort in the learning activity. Foc...

Classroom Management: The Assertive Approach

                         Image Credit The personality, philosophy, and teaching style will directly affect the teacher's managerial approach to classroom management. There are various approaches, or models that have been products of researchers and are applicable to classroom management. These approaches are based on psychology, classroom experience, and common sense. These approaches form a continuum from firm, direct, and structured to flexible, indirect, and democratic. Assertive Approach This approach to classroom management expects the teacher to specify rules of behavior and consequences for disobeying them. These rules and consequences should be communicated clearly to the pupils/students during the first day of classes. It is important that the learners know and realize that they should be held accountable for their actions. The teacher can devise his rules based on sound criteria of imposing sanctions for ...

Principles and Methods of Teaching: Types of Appreciation

               Image Credit Appreciation can be classified into four types - the intellectual, the aesthetic, the moral and ethical, and the religious. Aesthetic Appreciation This type of appreciation is directly experienced in marveling and appreciating natural creations in the environment. It is usually derived from conditions or state of affairs that are artistic and inspiring and are found in subjects like literature, music, art and dramatic presentations. Enjoyment comes from something beautiful. These may be rhythm and grace in dance, harmony of colors in a painting, proportion in a sculpture and blending of sound in a musical composition. Subject matter that provides and emphasizes good tastes, high ideals, and love of the beautiful should be developed. Ethical-Social Appreciation Since ethical values are universal and social appreciation comes from satisfaction in recognizing moral qualities of goodness and truth, this type of a...

K-12 Education in the Philippines: Views and Points of Filipino Teachers and Critics

Just recently, news broke that the lately engineered K-12 is quite unfeasible and might not be in full effect before long. Contrary to Department of Education’s assertion that by this year, changes in the curriculum will be discerned in most public schools as well as private institutions. Going back, why then that most educators and professors from different universities are still in doubt that the said program is still not good to go? Is K-12 then possible?                 Many critics are still bothered that K-12 might be more disastrous than helpful if the transition is not velvety. As sighted by one of the professors from the University of the Philippines-Diliman, integrating K-12 to the educational system is like overhauling the whole system and it obviously require generous time to bring about. Ironically, DepEd keeps reassuring that the time is ample and they will do it gradually. Then if it is tru...

Classroom Values That Should Be Inculcated to Students

To avoid or minimize classroom discipline, teachers should clearly state the rules and regulations at the beginning of the school year. This is to create positive and healthy environments for the students and the teacher where both will feel comfortable interacting with each other. Thus, teachers should inculcate values and make it a set of rules that will guide students with regards to appropriate behavior inside and outside the classroom. Respect is very important for both students and teacher because there is no way that a classroom environment can function without it. Likewise, it is impossible for an exchange of knowledge to transpire if there is an absence of respect. A teacher should clearly explain to his students what actions or measures fall under respect. Even in simple things such as raising hands during class discussion, talking to classmates, caring for school property, following instructions from adults or talking to school janitors, respect should always be practice...

Integrating Social Studies into Math, Reading, and Writing

Social studies is one of the easiest subjects to integrate into other subjects. This is good, because often times it is one of the first areas of the curriculum to get pushed to the back burner due to an emphasis on Language Arts and Math. Although it would be great to have time every day to devote to social studies alone, sometimes it is not a possibility in every classroom. One way that social studies can cross subjects is through reading. There are several non-fiction books, articles, and historical fiction books that can be used to teach both social studies and reading strategies. Content Area Reading by Richard T. Vacca and Jo Anne L. Vacca says “Picture books provide students with background knowledge about people, places, events, and experiences. They can ground students in cognitive concepts critical for understanding a variety of content area subjects. In addition, they can provide rich opportunities for promoting cultural diversity because picture books with a multicul...

Types of Lesson: Application Lesson

               Image Credit The application lesson is a type of learning instruction that gives the learners the opportunity to relate, express and apply what they have learned. After arriving at the generalization, it is important to apply for further analysis and verification. When a learner learns a rule in science, it has to be applied in the solution of problems. The ability to apply a rule correctly in solving problems is the real test of what the learner has learned. In an application lesson, certain conditions or situations are created that will lead learners to express their thoughts through construction or illustration of the concept, or language what they think or feel. The application lesson is very valuable to the teacher and the learners. One can easily see if the learners have learned based on their ability to apply principles and rules in the solution of problems. It is also easier to determine what has been learned because...

A Partial SWOT Analysis of Public and Private Education - Strengths of the Public School System

A SWOT and Comparative Analysis of Private vs Public Education – Part 1 - (Strengths of the Public School Systems) By Arthur H Tafero Many people like to discuss the comparison of private schools to public schools. Generally speaking, private schools are cleaner and safer. But many public schools are also clean and safe. One of the primarily differences between the schools is the use of money. Public schools tend to spend more money on administrators, teachers, and union personnel. Private schools are not bound by unions. Sometimes, this is a good thing and at other times, it may be a flaw in the private school system. Private schools tend to spend their money on the physical plant of the school. Administrators and teachers are generally paid less than public school teachers. Private schools are almost always smaller, which means better student/teacher ratios. The physical plant of a private school is generally more attractive than some messy public schools. Let&rsqu...

How to Achieve Genuine Communication in an ESL Classroom

Genuine communication in the classroom is the most vital component of an EFL course, regardless of factors like type and length of course or the students’ level. In a way, achieving genuine classroom communication is not as difficult as it may seem. However, it requires skill and preparation. The first step is for the teacher to create a friendly and supportive atmosphere that encourages natural communication and make students feel at ease. To do this, the teacher needs to be genuinely interested in the students, their lives outside the classroom, and their needs in the classroom. That’s why it’s always beneficial to get to know your students and establish a professional, yet friendly working relationship. A good starting point is setting up “get to know everyone” games and activities at the beginning of the course where the students learn about each other, each other’s interests and preferences, as well as get to know the teacher. Creating a frien...

Learning Evaluation: Types of Standardized Tests

                    Image Credit There are fundamentally four types of standardized tests. Intelligence Tests: The two commonly used intelligence tests are the Stanford-Binet (SB) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (WISC). The first is group intelligence test; while the second is administered on an individual basis. Achievement Tests: An achievement test is designed as a sampling of skills or abilities on specified area of knowledge. There are several types of achievement test. These are: Survey or general achievement tests: These are designed to measure the knowledge and skills of students in subject areas like math and science. Diagnostic tests: These are designed to identify and locate the strengths and weaknesses for purposes of placement and formulating an appropriate instructional program. Competency tests: These are designed to determine the learner's degree of competence in reading, language and...

How to Use Understanding by Design (UbD) in Classroom Teaching

Understanding by Design or UbD has been implemented by the Philippines Department of Education (DepEd) as its curriculum in place of the RBEC or Revised Basic Education Curriculum. Understanding by Design or UbD is a foreign framework and may seem daunting at first, but once you realize what potentials it has in making understanding and learning more long-lasting—and therefore effective—applying the framework to classroom setting will be easier. The key is simply by putting your lesson plans in the greater perspective of the curriculum's Big Ideas. Here are some ways you can start designing your classes for understanding: Be the keeper of the Big Idea. The Big Ideas are the main goals and objectives not just of the curriculum but of all lessons set forth. In order to keep lessons anchored on the Big Ideas, some of the content from textbooks or previous curriculum will have to be sacrificed. Every choice you make for classroom teaching should bring out the Big Idea i...

Tools for Educating Students with Orthopedic and Musculoskeletal Disorders

Special education teachers have enormous responsibilities in terms of meeting the needs of students with orthopedic and musculoskeletal disorders such as curvature of the spine, hip conditions, limb deficiency, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The process of developing appropriate individualized education goals begins with educating oneself on specific characteristics of each disorder. Students with orthopedic and musculoskeletal disorders require instructional programs and physical management routines that aim to assist the student in achieving “functional outcomes in communication, mobility, socialization, work, and learning” (Snell & Brown, 2006, p.291). The purpose of this paper is first to outline teacher responsibilities in terms of meeting the needs of this population. Next the author offers a brief synopsis of educational implications for the following conditions: curvature of the spine, hip conditions, and limb deficiency. The final segment is a comprehensive...

How to Make Biology Class Fun and Interactive Part 1

In a student's mind, biology competes with history as the ultimate subject synonym of "memorization." And with good reason. Biology, being the science of life, suffers from bad PR and is often perceived as, ironically, a life-less subject. You can't blame students if all throughout the year, they are expected to memorize and remember an onslaught of terminology, concepts, names, laws, chemical processes, and scientific names. Biology should, by all means, be an exciting subject for students. Through it, they learn about the wondrous nature they live in and have yet to discover. They find more about their own species, their own bodies. Students get the chance to appreciate how complex life is and what a marvel it is that life exists. The variety of living things, the efficiency of organisms, the expansiveness of the world, the galaxy and the universe… all these that you tackle as biology teachers should be enough to make them want to know more. And the field of biolo...

The Philippines: School Teacher

A teacher is one of the most respected jobs in the Philippines. However, it is also one of the hardest professions available in the Philippines. There are many implications a teacher has to face; the lack of sufficient resources for teaching is an example. The salary of a teacher is not a huge amount compared to other professionals. Teachers in public schools earn more than private schools; however public schools lack the adequate facilities to effectively teach students in a conducive environment. The private school teacher will have to sacrifice the leisure of teaching in a completely facilitated school to earn more just to make a living. A private school teacher handles 10 to 30 students while a public school teacher handles 30 to 100 students in a single classroom. The lack of teachers will also make a public school teacher handle more loads than a private school teacher. Becoming a public school teacher is even harder, a private teacher must have a strong grip or influence on th...

Fun Outdoor Trigonometry Experiments Part 1

As if adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing numbers AND letters (okay, variables) wasn't enough torture already, Mathematicians came up with trigonometry. Trigonometry is, simply put, the study of triangles and the relationships of the sides and angles of these triangles. The subject seems easy enough for your unsuspecting students, and at first, going back to drawing triangles will seem fun if not easy. Then come the hard parts, and they will start to realize that trigonometry isn't JUST about triangles. After the triangles come the circles. After the circles come the waves. By that time, your students might already be swept away in the concepts and computations. Just because trigonometry calls for drawings, graphs and calculations doesn't mean your students should be cooped up in the classroom. Here are some simple experiments you can do outside the class that can teach the concepts of trigonometry and show how Math does exist in the real world. Measuring Experiments The ...

A Look at the Philosophy of John Locke Regarding Education.

With all due respect to Pink Floyd, education is one of the most important aspects to maintaining our society. We do, in fact, need an education. A well educated people will be happier and more prosperous and therefore be more inclined to social order. “Man becomes a rational animal when he is educated” (Goel). Understanding how to educate each successive generation is the key to creating a sustainable society. It is a twist on the old adage that if you give a man a fish, you feed him for a day; if you teach him to fish; you feed him for the rest of his life. In the case of education: if you become educated, you teach yourself; if you learn how to educate others, you teach the world. The philosopher John Locke had a great deal to say about education. Locke uses the term education to encompass the process of a child growing into an adult. This process includes the need to socialize the child and prepare them to enter into society. Locke draws from his work on natural rights...

Facilitate Effective Teaching: Characteristics of a Good Recitation

               Image Credit To appreciate instruction, there is a need to make a distinction between teaching and instruction. Teaching is the behavior of the teacher that evolves during the instructional process. Instruction refers to specific methods and activities by which the teacher influences learning. Characteristics of a Good Recitation It may be inferred that the most important characteristic of a recitation is to develop wholesome attitude essentials to effective teaching-learning process. It is in the recitation where varied ideas take place. It is this kind of learning atmosphere where pupils (students) develop creative expressions. Although there is no hand-and-fast rule in the conduct of the recitation, some authors in pedagogy recommended some guidelines. The recitation should be well planned. Planning and organizing of the learning materials will ensure the smooth unfolding of various activities during the recitation. Th...

Effective Teaching Methods: Criteria for Selecting Tests

                      Image Credit The two major criteria for selecting tests are reliability and validity. No matter what type of test one uses, it should be reliable and valid. Reliability means that the test yields similar results when it is repeated over a short period of time or when different form is used. It is used for measuring the accuracy and consistency with which a measuring device measures what it purports to measure. A reliable test can be viewed as consistent, dependable and stable. Validity means that the test does measure what it is represented as measuring. It is used for measuring the degree to which measuring instrument measures what it purports to measure. Test reliability can be improved by the following factors: Increased number of tests items: Reliability is higher when the number of items is increased, because the test involves a larger sample of the subject matter covered. Heterogeneity ...

Teaching Virtues and Character in the Classroom

Due to the fact that many children come from rough neighborhoods filled with violence and self-destruction, it is imperative that we teach good character and virtues in the classroom. Such examples include empathy, moral reasoning, and self-control, responsibility to us and to others. We must not waiver since the teacher cannot do it alone. It should be the motto and policy of the school to implement these with support from the Superintendent down to the teachers and supporting facility while getting parents on board.   According to Kohn (1997): At weekly public ceremonies, certain children receive a leaf that will then be hung in the Forest of Virtue. The virtues themselves are "not open to debate," the headmaster insists, since moral precepts in his view enjoy the same status as mathematical truths (para. 8). Kohn sees that if the virtues are not open to debate, all students will be required to follow the same rules and responsibilities which infuse the core virtues he instil...

Audio-lingual Habit Versus Cognitive-code Learning in Language Acquisition

  First, I would like to state my definition of language.  I define language as a tool to convey verbal and nonverbal messages to live and survive in this challenging world.  Guy Cook describes human existence without language as inconceivable for it is at the heart of human life.  Second, I would like to affirm my belief in the rationalistic, cognitivist, and mentalistic theory by Noam Chomsky.  I believe that language is innate and each individual has the ability to adapt to his/her language environment because of the presence of mental grammar,  and universal grammar.              I believe that the aforementioned viewpoints correspond to my use of the cognitive-code learning method in teaching English as a second language (ESL) here in Weihai, China.  I find it very effective to apply the cognitive code learning method in teaching ESL to primary, secondary and tertiary levels because it...

Aids to Facilitate Effective Teaching: The Recitation

                           Image Credit Any teacher if he has to teach effectively must know how to conduct recitations, makes and asks good questions and gives interesting and challenging assignments. Specific guidelines and procedures as well as cautions are necessary and well provided in each area. The new teacher, and even experienced old teachers, will find this literature a rich mine of information about every teaching tool. A careful study of each area will undoubtedly solve multifarious problems that the teacher may encounter in this multifaceted activity. The recitation as a teaching tool is viewed to be a common teaching technique in a period of class instruction. It is the most visible manifestation of the teaching-learning situation. It helps pupils/students in learning every aspect of the subject matter to clarify abstract concepts and ideas. Recitation has been used in all levels of learning as an...

Methods of Teaching: Review Principles and Techniques

           Image Credit Purposes of the Review Basically, the review is a type of teaching. The purposes are: Retention of facts and information learned operates directly through the fact that practice works through repetition of correct responses Organization of materials and experiences: This is a characterized by facts learned in the daily lessons should be tied together into a meaningful whole. For learning to be significant and meaningful facts and information learned in various learning situations should be felt and manifested in the experiences of the learners. Ability of the learner to evaluate the material: Daily lessons impress upon the learner that facts and information as well as topics are equal worth. Small learning units when systematically organized into a large learning unit, the learners can view a new and clearer perspective of the whole. Foundations of further learning: A review of the pre...

Effective Teaching Methods: Evaluation of Instructional and Learning Outcomes

               Image Credit Researches in evaluating instructional outcomes at all levels of education have developed widespread interest. There are several questions that confront teachers at all levels that need to be addressed such as: Did the learners develop adequate skills? Were the teaching methods and strategies utilized adequate and effective in helping them pursue their goals and objectives? Which learning experiences were effective in promoting learning? How successful were the teacher's sustained effort in contributing to the realization of the primary objectives of education? Various development educational policies and strategic plans of action based on the results of these evaluations have led school authorities to look for changes and other alternatives to improve the quality of education. For Burton and Buckner, an educational program may be evaluated most satisfactorily by studying it "in terms of its philosophy of ed...

How to Deal with a Smart Aleck in Class Part 1

Find x. This is a standard mathematical statement used in algebra problems. It seems innocuous enough to write on the board or use in an exam. Until the smart aleck pounces! “Here it is, duh?” What’s the difference between nouns and pronouns? After a successful lesson in grammar, students will definitely differentiate the two correctly. Until the smart aleck attacks! “Obviously they have different spellings.” A smart aleck in class can tear apart a newbie teacher who has not seen much of the various personalities of the classroom and is not equipped to deal with traps. A smart aleck can also intimidate the more experienced teachers and lead them to tears—or rage! Dealing with a smart alecky student is a delicate business. For one thing, smart alecks make the class laugh, and you don’t want to get on the bad side of an amused group of students mercifully waken from stupor. On the other hand, some witty remarks end up embarrassing you or ...

Facilitate Effective Teaching: Functions of The Assignment

                    Image Credit In order that the assignment will serve its purposes, it must be purposive; it is the paramount duty of the teacher to ensure that all assigned learning tasks are important and meaningful to the learners. There are a number of functions of assignments. These are: To set the goal or direction of the learning task: The learners are supposed to know what the learning activity is all about. The assigned task must be clear, definitive and purposive. To stimulate logical and creative thinking: It is also an opportunity to train and develop good habits. To recall previous lessons in preparation for a long test or it may be recall for organization of ideas and concepts and other relevant information To motivate the learners and prepare them for the learning task to be done: The preparation includes giving the background, the coverage and difficulty of the activity, why they are suppos...

The Distinguishing Elements of the Learners in Learning

Learners differ from the other learners in different aspects. It is very important for somebody to notice it especially for the one that will be going to teach. There are those learners that learn immediately while others find it hard to understand. Some learners need learning assistance and providing this assistance needs the knowledge about certain elements that varies learners to learners. There are certain elements that distinguish the learner individually in the aspect of learning. These distinguishing elements are the individual ability, aptitude, interest, family and cultural background and the attitude. The learners have different abilities, they have different aptitude, they have different interest, they have different family and cultural background as well as different attitudes and these differences provide impact on individual learning process. Different learners differ from their ability in learning. The ability is one of the factors that will dictate an individual&rsquo...

Tips for Teachers: When to Use Short-Answer and Essay Tests

                                    Image Credit The tips below provide the reader with a brief overview of when to use what type of test - short answer or essay. It is best, perhaps, to maintain a balance between both types of tests, since some students do better on one type than the other. Use short-answer test in the measurement of educational achievement when: The group to be tested is large. Highly reliable test scores must be obtained as efficiently as possible. Impartiality of evaluation, absolute fairness, and freedom from halo effects are essential. The teacher is more confident of his ability to express objective test items clearly than of his ability to judge essay test answers correctly. There is more pressure for speedy reporting of scores than for speedy test preparation. Use essay tests in the measurement of educational achievement when: Th...

Pupils Common Behavior Issues In The Classroom

Behavior issues in the classroom happen nearly every day. This isn't surprising by instructors because pupils clearly can get a sense of immunity to you in due period. And it is common dynamics for them to become somehow influenced within the route of noisiness and stubbornness over time. Being a teacher our position is indeed huge. We are not just attempting to teach them instructions that they signed up and also life overall. Over instructing, we're presently there to direct them as well as discipline all of them in order that the class setting will never be interrupted as well as ruined. Thus, as a very first approach to slowly resolve this specific common teacher issue, it is advisable to recognize the various kinds of behaviors issues in the classroom. As a result will set the difference of what exactly is regarded as interfering with as well as the ones are not. · Issue #1: Noisy pupils. Noise is a thing that must be modulated especially in a class environment. An inst...

The Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET): How I Prepared for and Took the Exam Even During Typhoon Season

September 27. The day had been marked for months on every calendar I have—in my mobile phone, in my planner, on my computer, in my room, in the editorial schedule. The day of the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET), the board exam for teacher-wannabes. Come first week of September, I was reviewing more intensely, and also taking more care of my body. (Read my essay on how to pass the LET.) I ate more vegetables, fish and fruits, and tried to sleep earlier than 2 a.m. I took time off work to mentally prepare myself to think of the exam, instead of the deadlines I was supposed to beat. The week before the Exam Day, I followed a stricter regimen, alternating between reviews and relaxation or recreation throughout each day. To keep nervous breakdowns and panic attacks at bay, I followed meditation techniques taught by Sir Knoi on our last review session. As he also suggested, I had my baon and time planned out days before Exam Day. As it turned out, no amount of preparation wo...

Batis Online: Filipino Teaching Resources on the Internet

The subject Filipino has been unfairly tagged by students for a long time. It’s boring. It’s not necessary. It’s outdated. It’s hard. Of course, Filipino is our national language. It is mandatory that we study it in full and in depth. The fact remains that the content and methods used in the subject may already be out of touch with the world of our students. One way you, as a Filipino teacher, can bridge the gap between the subject you are passionate about and the reality of your students is to go digital. While you may be using content from books and you wish your students to do the same, you have to accept that part of your students’ reality is virtual reality. Information is available online. Instead of scolding them, you can provide a guide for them in seeking information on Filipino online. Below are some safe Internet places for you and for them to visit, explore and use. WIKIPILIPINAS.ORG I’m sure you’ve heard a lot about Wikipedia. Y...

Teaching ESL: The Do's and Don'ts of Teaching English to Foreign Students

Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) may have a few similarities with teaching the English subject to native speakers, but the list could go on and on as to how different it really is. For one thing, teaching ESL conforms not to the conventional principles of teaching and therefore calls for specialized teaching strategies which are targeted towards addressing the specific learning needs of foreign ESL students. When considering the prospect of teaching English to foreign students, a teacher should bear in mind that his students are natives of other nations. They have diverse cultures that are most likely different from the teacher’s; their orientation of things may minimally or to an extent be in conflict with that of the teacher’s opinions. An ESL teacher, therefore, is expected to define which actions are acceptable in his practice of profession. Here are some guidelines on what to do and what not to do when teaching English to foreign students: Do… 1....

Facilitate Effective Teaching: Factors That Influence an Effective Recitation

              Image Credit There are certain factors that are to be identified and considered to insure the success of the recitation. Among these are: Good Learning Environment The classroom should be free from any form of distraction, whether inside or outside. An ideal setting for a good recitation conducive to learning is a quiet, well-kept, clean, well-lighted, well-ventilated and with cool and pastel colors on the walls of the classroom. Proper Class Management A properly managed class is usually free from distraction. In some cases, because the teacher lacks mastery of the subject matter, contribute to class distraction. Interest and Enthusiasm are Contagious Interest and enthusiasm usually excite involvement. A resourceful and dedicated teacher to his profession always motivates the learners by using teaching aids and devices to arouse and sustain the interests of the class. A healthy teacher is always enthusiastic to give his best ...

Curriculum Guide for Academic Interventions

Introduction The purpose of this paper is to provide the audience with a written document containing practical teaching notes for use when teaching a lesson to students with emotional behavioral disorders (EBD). This how-to guide will provide steps for achieving specific learning objectives, principles governing behavior, descriptions of effective teaching strategies, interventions and accommodations for use by the special educator in the classroom. The curriculum guide will use the REWARDS: Reading Excellence: Word Attack & Rate Development Strategies (Archer, Gleason and Vachon, 2006) as a sample curriculum. However, the principles and strategies described may be generalized to other curricula. Eight principles of effective instruction (Yell, Meadows, Drasgow, Shriner, 2009) will be discussed in relation to educational purpose, task analysis of teacher and student assessment procedures. Student motivation will also be addressed. The REWARDS Program (Archer et al., 2006) is a sp...

Effective Teaching Methods: Criteria for Selecting Tests

                      Image Credit The two major criteria for selecting tests are reliability and validity. No matter what type of test one uses, it should be reliable and valid. Reliability means that the test yields similar results when it is repeated over a short period of time or when different form is used. It is used for measuring the accuracy and consistency with which a measuring device measures what it purports to measure. A reliable test can be viewed as consistent, dependable and stable. Validity means that the test does measure what it is represented as measuring. It is used for measuring the degree to which measuring instrument measures what it purports to measure. Test reliability can be improved by the following factors: Increased number of tests items: Reliability is higher when the number of items is increased, because the test involves a larger sample of the subject matter covered. Heterogeneity ...

How to Deal with a Smart Aleck in Class Part 2

In the first part of this two-part article on dealing with smart alecks in the classroom, we learned about how teachers should initially react to such a behavior. Here are more tips: React with wit. You can respond to a smart alecky behavior with wisdom—by giving the class a lesson on values ed and proper decorum—or you can react with your own witty retort. It’s part of playing along IF you are known to be a jester yourself. Knowing what jest will work can keep the class entertained but still focused. Direct the expression to the entire class, too, and not just to the smart aleck. Resist the temptation of turning an instance into an endless Battle of Wits ala Flip Top style. When a student whines, “But it’s so boring!” saying, “Let’s see if your report card will be entertaining!” is probably not a good retort. Address the situation with wit, not with malice. Hold your tongue. If humoring a group is not exactly your forte, then may...

Survival Phrases for ESL Teachers

Whether you are staying abroad or just living in your own country to teach ESL -- may it be that you’re handling a man-to-man class, group class or (online) video class -- as an ESL teacher, you need survival phrases to help you communicate effectively with your students. These survival phrases are expressions in the native language of your ESL students. They vary from Spanish, Russian, German, Japanese, Korean to Chinese languages. There is a vast selection of available resources which provide these survival phrases for ESL teachers. If you’re an ESL teacher looking for such phrases to use, you could easily conduct a research online for these, or you could go conventional with self-help audio books and translator dictionaries. Foreign students find it easier to learn the English language when their teachers use their native language to cite and explain English words and sentences. Most institutions do not allow teachers to utilize this strategy, but many teachers agree t...

Facilitate Effective Teaching: Pointers to Consider When Giving Assignments

           Image Credit The assignment is that part of a lesson assigned as a particular task to the pupils/students what they are expected to accomplish in the lesson; the assignment as an academic duty or job that may be done in class or at home. The assignment may be in the form of a project to be accomplished, a research topic on health and sanitation, causes of drug addiction, a theme to be written, a literary selection to be memorized, understood and interpreted, an interview with a government official or a problem to be solved in Mathematics. These learning activities are parts of the teaching-learning cycle. The assignment serves as the primary means of stimulating and directing various learning activities undergoing inside or outside the classroom. It helps in developing favorable attitudes toward the learning task to be done by the learners. It also serves as a means of developing desirable study habits and promotes inde...

Facilitate Effective Teaching: Uses of Questions

               Image Credit There are various uses of the question that the teacher can utilize to obtain desirable results. These are: To stimulate the learners to think: One of the most common problems arising in the teaching-learning process is the inability of the teacher to get learners to think intensively about a given topic for the day. The effective use of thought provoking questions may serve to remedy this problem. To motivate the learners’ interest: Interesting and challenging questions can be used effectively to arouse, hold and sustain interest of the learners. An example of a motivating, holding and sustaining question to capture the interest of the class in health education after a unit on health problems has been identified. Example: "If you were an officer in your community representing the youth, what recommendations would you offer to improve its health conditions?" To diag...

The Different Manifest Functions of Education

There are manifest functions of education; these are promoting social and political integration, social control, as an agent of change, as an agent of transmitting culture, socialization and as an agent of social placement. By transforming the diverse ethnic groups and religious groups of the society into one society that shares a common identity; education and the educational institution promotes the political and social integration of the society. It serves as an agent that is responsible in integrating the different factions of society into a single one that shares some common identity. By teaching some values such as discipline, punctuality, obedience, perseverance, respect and the like, and by teaching conformity through encouraging young people to be a good student, to be a law-abiding citizen and to be a good citizen, schools and educational institution become an agent of social control. Education, as an institution teaches the young to be noble and to be a good and well devel...

12 Famous Celebrities Who Studied American Literature, English Literature and French Literature

There are famous people who have a gained a college education before becoming stars. Some of these celebrities earned a degree in either American literature, English Literature, French Literature, but pursued other careers as actors, actress, producers, directors and singers. JENNIFER BEALS Jennifer Beals is an actress, best known for her roles in Chicago Code and Castle. She graduated from Yale University with a degree in American Literature. KATE BECKINSALE Kate Beckinsale is an actress. She acted in films such as Contraband, Whiteout, Vacancy and The Aviator. She majored in French and Russian Literature at Oxford University New College. After three years of studying literature, she left to pursue her acting career. Actress Jodie Foster graduated from Yale University with a Bachelor’s degree in literature. JODIE FOSTER Actress Jodie Foster graduated from Yale University with a Bachelor’s degree in Literature. LAUREN HOLLY Lauren Holly is an actress and ...

Classroom Management Key Factors

                 Image Credit The management of a classroom includes control of its physical conditions, proper utilization of materials for instruction, classroom routine and discipline. The physical aspects include the location, size, shape, lighting and illumination, ventilation, acoustics, and provisions for sanitation. While the location and the size of the room are not within the teacher's control, the ingenious and creative teacher can transform even the dullest room in the building to be attractive, restful and comfortable. The educational climate of the room should be conducive to learning. The teacher has many opportunities for creating - with and for students - a classroom environment that promotes cooperative group learning experiences. "Classroom environment" encompasses four variables: the physical environment, the intellectual climate, the social climate and the emotional climate. The Intellectual Climate: T...

Tragedy of the Commons: A Review

One of the classic readings in environmental science, the Tragedy of the Commons by Garret Hardin reflects how current issues on population, pollution and natural resource management are being dealt with today. Published in Science in 1968, this article advances the idea that not all of human problems can be addressed by technical solutions and that human freedom must have limits to sustain the life support systems. Finiteness of Natural Resources Hardin emphasizes the finiteness of resources as opposed to frontier thinking where natural resources are regarded as inexhaustible. As the human population increases in number, greater demand for goods and services which are drawn out from the surrounding environment is required to supply those needs. For many years, the products derived from different ecosystems are free to access and use by the people. These resources are termed collectively as “commons”, available to everyone upon demand. But earth has its limits, the geom...

Effective Teaching Methods: Instruments of Measurement and Evaluation

                          Image Credit For Gines, et. al., 1998, measurement is the process of quantifying the degree to which someone or something possesses a given trait (quality, characteristic or feature). It is not synonymous with the administration of a test since data may also be collected with processes such as observation or may already be available and retrieved from records. Navarro, et. al., 1988, state that measurement refers to the process of gathering information in relation to the presence or absence of a student behavior. Evaluation is a process in which we put a value on or assign worth to something. The essential characteristic of evaluation is judgment. Measurement is quantitative and describes something in terms of specific numbers or percentage. In evaluation, a judgment is made in attaching a value or a qualitative description in a measurement derived from a test. When undertaking the differ...

Top 3 Student Behavior Challenges in the Classroom and How Teachers Overcome Them

Every classroom whether it is composed of a class of little kids or older kids is not normal if there are no problems at all regarding student’s behavior. There would be no children if there are no matching behavioral problems for teachers to tackle. In a normal class of at least fifty students; there will always be student/students who are different from the other students. The behaviors of students differ individually because they are individual people who come from different backgrounds. There are many factors that affect behavioral patterns of students so you cannot expect them to be all the same. If you are the teacher, you should know how to handle different situations including behavior problems of students.  One way of doing this is to connect and relate properly to your students.  If the students respect you and they could easily relate to you; chances are that they will listen and do what you say. There are many types of behaviors that match each student....

Obligations of School Principal

A school principal acts as the main leader of the entire school campus. Promoting efficient learning and good working environment for all is the main obligation of the principal. As a leader, the principal works and leads by example and is readily available to the teachers, faculty members, students, and visitors. In times of problems, a good leader stays cool and always gives priority to the welfare of the school and best interest of the students when making decisions. Conducting interview and hiring of new teachers and staff are likewise the obligation of the principal. The interview portion is of utmost importance because it will serve as the determining factor whether a candidate is qualified for the position or not. In the process of interviewing candidates, the presence of superintendent or assistant principal is also necessary to get another opinion of who qualify best. If the position is already filled up, it is best to inform other candidates so that they will no longer exp...

APA Formatting in a Nutshell

APA formatting changes just when we all get used to how it works.  Here are a few tips on how to get through APA formatting with most of your hair intact.   Simply put, you have to be sure that your formatting is as perfect as it can be otherwise the peers that review your article, or the instructor who reads your paper is likely to either turn the paper back to you for revision, or mark off for little process and formatting errors. Here is a short list of the biggest issues within APA formatting.  I'm also including links to a great site that has all the answers for APA formatting.  APA formatting tips, for APA ver 6.0  (Required for all 2009 - Present APA documents) Definitions: **Citation, in-text citation:  The short version of where you got your information from.  You use only the last name and the date of the publication.  If the publication is a book, then include the page number.  The period goes at the end of the close par...

Characteristics of a Good Primary Education Classroom

The primary purpose of the classroom is to provide the students an ideal learning environment. This can be achieved by ensuring the presence or absence of certain factors that directly or indirectly affect the learning of students. To make the environment conducive for learning, teachers must manipulate all the resources available to them to achieve the ideal classroom. 1. Walls, ceiling and floors The boundaries of the classroom serve as the barrier that keeps outside distractions out and student’s attention in. The important thing to remember is to prevent these boundaries from becoming distractions themselves. Bright colors of paint such as red and neon green are not ideal. Choose earth colors because they are more natural to the students’ vision. Having too many decorations can also be distracting. Detailed illustrations of popular cartoon characters for example, may be inviting but having the students’ attention in these decorations during class can become coun...

The Definition of Common Graduation Terminologies and Other Related Matters

Graduation time is on again in the Philippines and in other countries. It the west, they usually held their graduation ceremonies in the month of July because their summer starts on this month and ends in September. We often hear different terms during graduation time but many actually don’t know the meaning or origin of such words. There are also several other related terms such as toga, title of the graduation march and several other things that they are aware of. 1. Aida’s March What is the title of the song they play during graduation ceremonies? Many are not aware of the real title of this classical music. The usual or common title they know is “Graduation March”. This great piece of classical music is actually entitled “Grand March” from the opera “Aida”. It was composed by the world renowned Giuseppe Verdi. 2. Alma mater Alma mater is a Latin phrase which literally means “nourishing mother”. Alma mater is the educat...

Making Filipino Heroes Relevant When You Teach

If there's one commentary Filipino historians and columnists frequently say these days, it's that Filipinos have a short memory. We easily forget crimes against our country. We easily get distracted from an issue by another not-always-more-serious issue. From the broadsheet editors to Conrado de Quiros, the observation is consistent. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo's win as congresswoman of Pampanga, the Maguindanao massacre, the Hello Garci issue, and even Ferdinand Marcos' burial… all these issues of the past few years might just be buried in our memories in the next decade. With such "short memories" when it comes to events that transpired five, ten years ago, how can we keep alive events that took place over a hundred years ago? How can we prevent national amnesia so that names like Rizal and Bonifacio don't simply mean place-names and monuments? How can we pass on memories of Philippine heroes and revolutions to the youth and make sure the memories don't get erased by ...

9 Celebrities Who Were Teachers and Still Are Teachers

These celebrities are either former teachers or became teachers after pursuing a career in acting and music.  ROBERTA FLACK Roberta Flack is a jazz and R&B singer.  She graduated with a BA in Music from Howard University.  She taught music at the junior high school in Washington, D.C.for many years.  She also taught private piano lessons out of her home in Washington, D.C. AL FREEMAN JR. Al Freeman Jr. is an actor and known for his role in One Life to Live.  He is an acting Professor at Howard University for 16 years. He teaches Speech for the Microphone, Character/Scene study for Junior Level Acting and Acting for TV and Film for Senior Level. MARK GODDARD Mark Goddard acted in many televison programs like CW’s Supernatural, Lost in Space, General Hospital, One Life to Live and many other programs.  He is a teacher at the Chamberlain School in Middleboro, Massachusetts.  This is a facility for students with behavior problems. JANET ...

What is Pygmalion Effect and How Teachers Can Use It to Achieve Better Performance Among Students?

We know that more positive you are in your approach towards your career or teaching, more successful and a better teacher you are. So having believe in what you are doing reflects in your behaviour and your dealing with students. Having faith that your students are cabable of doing better brings positive results and it is the term called 'The Pygmalion effects'. According to the definition by wikipedia: The Pygmalion effect, or Rosenthal effect, refers to the phenomenon in which the greater the expectation placed upon people, often children or students and employees, the better they perform. The effect is named after Pygmalion, a Cypriot sculptor in a narrative by Ovid in Greek mythology, who fell in love with a female statue he had carved out of ivory. Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson (1968/1992) report and discuss the Pygmalion effect at length.  In their study, they showed that if teachers were led to expect enhanced performance from some children, then the children did i...

Review of Three Filipino Children's Literature

I came across this children’s library online about two years ago when I was desperately searching for Filipino children’s books for my toddler.  I was thrilled when I saw numerous books from the Philippines and other countries and couldn’t wait to read them to my daughter.  I found the following children’s books from the Philippines very interesting:      The Legend of the Bitter Gourd by Augie D. Rivera is a story of Ampalaya, the vegetable who was having a hard time to belong.  He solved his problem by stealing the best traits of each vegetable in the garden.  In the end, he was punished and gave him all the traits he stole from the other vegetables.  This story is about greed and the consequences that come with it.  I believe it’s also about forgiveness because the story concludes with Ampalaya playing with the other vegetables.             I think...

Toys That Can Help Enhance Learning in Young Kids

Using toys to teach very young kids is probably one of the best methods in teaching effectively.  Visual aids that include toys are among the best tools for teaching very young kids since young children are visual people who learn more effectively by looking at the actual things. While toys are used for playing, they can also be used as visual aids when teaching young kids.  Teaching could be fun and more interesting to the kids if you use toys to teach them.  Young kids love toys.  This is the reason why using toys for teaching will help a lot in enhancing learning in young kids.  Take note also that the types of toys you use to aid you in teaching the young kids is very important Below are some suggested toys that you can use in teaching young kids. Books Children love books especially the colorful ones.  As much as possible choose a book that is glossy and colorful.  Picture books are more effective for very young kids.  They will not...

How to Make Biology Class Fun and Interactive Part 2

In How to Make Biology Class Fun and Interactive Part 1, techniques in teaching Biology and making memorization fun and creative were outlined. Here are more tips to bring life to your biology classes and help you teach biology creatively. The Web of Life. In Biology, students must be able to see the interconnectedness of life and everything on earth and the universe. This, in the UbD framework, is a Big Idea for Biology. From cellular division to evolution, from photosynthesis to climate change, each concept and idea can be viewed in a bigger picture. When students see Biology as a telescope that can provide zoom in and zoom out views of things around them, they don't just achieve a higher understanding of the world—they also develop an appreciation of life and its beauty and wonders. Plus, knowing well the connections of the organisms, habitats and processes they are studying will make it easier for your students to memorize and recall. You can create a wall art in class with ...

How to Teach Intellectual Honesty and Discourage Plagiarism

Intellectual honesty is an important value that goes beyond paraphrasing, citing sources and condemning plagiarism. It's a value that also requires skill to be realized. In the classroom, you can teach intellectual honesty and discourage plagiarism by fostering good values and necessary academic skills. What is intellectual honesty? Why is it set apart from plain old honesty? What is plagiarism and why should we discourage plagiarism? I found two definitions and discussions that encapsulate the intellectual or academic aspect and the value-laden aspect of intellectual honesty. For the more practical aspect, which addresses the value in school context, Dalhouse University defines intellectual honesty this way: "Academic integrity means that we are honest and accurate in creating and communicating all academic products. Acknowledgement of other people’s work must be done in a way that does not leave the reader in any doubt as to whose work it is. Academic integrity means t...

Buy Your Favorite Merchandise, Book & Accessories From Texas Tech Store

Red Raiders are celebrated athletic teams of Texas Tech University that represent pride and pleasure of the University’s students and alumni. Raid Raiders teams have featured in various athletic and sports contests and have enjoyed amazing success at these events. The students and alumni of Texas Tech University love their teams and often show their love by dressing up in the team’s colors and using accessories with the team’s logo. Red Raider outfitter store is known to provide a range of Red Raider merchandise like clothes, books and other accessories to the enthusiastic fans of Red Raiders. The shop is very popular among the passionate Red Raider fans who can buy high quality jerseys, tee shirts, polos, sweat shirts, shorts, pants, shoes, wallets, watches, hats, key chains, bags, stationeries, books, cards etc. from the shop. The shop has amazing collection of apparel and accessories for men, women, boys, girls and children. You can buy these items for personal us...

Adult Learning: Understanding How Adults Learn

 Adults learn differently from children, teens, and traditional students. Teaching adults can be quite challenging for some. The best methods for teaching adults (andragogy) involve understanding and supporting how adults learn most effectively.  According to Malcolm Knowles, originator of adult learning, adults move from dependency to self-directed learners. Nowadays, most colleges and other learning institutions have made tremendous advancements in accommodating the adult learner by offering classes and degree programs that meets their needs.  Therefore class instructors and facilitators must also design the curriculum(s) and the classroom structure specifically for adult learners. Malcolm Knowels’ theory of adult learners suggest that: Adults are self -directed learners and need to be actively involved in the learning process Learning must be of value to the adult learner Adults need to connect learning with life experience b...

Highly Effective Teachers: Active Participation and Cognitive Engagement

Active participation and cognitive engagement are imperative for student success.  Being mentally, and even physically, involved in the learning process is far more stimulating for students and generates far greater results than when students are not required to participate in instruction at a rate of “most of the students” “most of the time”.  Active participation and cognitive engagement require students to be on at all times and constant mental involvement is necessary to ensure optimum classroom learning. Active participation and cognitive engagement are tools of all highly effective teachers…teachers who inspire students…teachers who are able to generate learning…teachers who understand that every student must be reached almost every minute of every lesson.  Active participation requires a constant back and forth between students and teachers.  It does not result when students are lectured to or ...

A Refreshing Approach to Conquering a Student Phobia for Mathematics - Episode 1

Just last week I bumped into the parking attendant – let's call him Koos – at our local village shopping center. I had understood, a while before this occasion that he was forced by difficult personal circumstances into carrying out such menial duties as this one. As a result, he relies entirely on tips from the public to guard motor cars (many motor cars are stolen locally), plus pushing clients shopping trolleys, and unloading their parcels into the car boot. Parking Attendant But somehow, today was different – I could see the quizzical look sweep across his face. I realized that he had noticed the sign in the rear window of my car: "Mentoring for Success in Math" – upon which he, somewhat forlornly said: "I wish I had applied myself to doing well in Math whilst at school" – "then I would not have to be doing this lousy job for peanuts today" The facts are though, that there are many millions of people just like Koos, a...

How to Make Biology Class Fun and Interactive Part 3

In How to Make Biology Class Fun and Interactive Part 1and Part 2, methods and activities for a more interesting Biology class were tackled. The following are more tips on teaching Biology and getting students more involved and engaged in class. Indoor Safari. If you have limited resources and can't head out for a field trip or hook up an LCD projector, no worries. Transform your classroom into an indoor rain forest or tundra, and turn your classes into indoor safaris. Put up props such as real plants, stuffed animals or posters of wildlife scenes. Play animal sound recordings using your trusty player. Wear khaki shorts and a hat ala Kuya Kim and be the entertaining tour guide. Or, turn your classroom into a blowup of the human anatomy, or of cellular life. Assign body parts or cellular processes to groups. Ask them to make models of these parts using recycled materials. During presentation, let the groups explain certain processes as the class moves from one installation to another. ...

Bulletin Board Ideas: Things That Fly

Teaching young kids is tiring but interesting. There are always ways to make learning to young kids fun and one way of doing this is to use the bulletin board. One of the important tools in teaching preschoolers is the bulletin board. The bulletin board keeps the little kids updated with new things that the teacher is going to teach them. Although a bulletin board is not a direct teaching tool, this is very important because this is one way of advertising the subject matter to the kids. Choosing the kinds of materials to use in the bulletin board is therefore a very important factor to consider in properly relaying the subject matter to the very young kids. Things that fly are great ideas to use in the bulletin board for young kids. You can group the things that fly into three categories namely transportation, animals and insects, and toys. This will enhance the word association of the kids since there are many kinds of things that fly. They can associate flying with transport...

Fun Outdoor Trigonometry Experiments Part 2

Who said you can't teach Trigonometry outdoors? There are many Trigonometry experiments you can perform outdoors, such as measuring experiments and rocket experiments. Here are a few more experiments: Giant Unit Circle The unit circle is a crucial tool in analytic trigonometry. Most of the time, the unit circle is drawn on the board and the angles and their coordinates are plotted on it. Why not give your students free reign and a chance to play with that giant compass and protractor of yours? For this experiment, you'll need an area outside the classroom where your students can draw. You can ask for permission to use the basketball court or the quadrangle. Materials needed include colored chalk, rags (for erasures, of course), a giant compass, protractors and meter sticks. Assign an area for each group to draw on. Ask them to draw the unit circle (diameter of 2 meters). Make sure to check accuracy and neatness of the unit circles. Give a list of angles to be ...

The Importance of Class Mascots in Classrooms

We would like to find ways to improve classroom management, student attention and higher-level thinking with a few tools that can be used in many ways and inserted easily into lesson plans. One of those tools is a class mascot. This can be a doll or a puppet, or even just a picture on the wall, something to which anyone can grant personality aspects. Animals are good not only for their neutrality, but also because they can be a foil for many cultural situations. The utility of a class mascot breaks down into several areas that we'll discuss one by one. In terms of classroom management, the mascot can serve as the speaker of class rules and an establisher of esteem and trust. It can live in a place in the classroom to which the class moves for specific activities. Particularly in primary school, it's always a good idea, if possible, to divide daily tasks in the classroom into different physical locations. A class mascot stimulates and directs students' imaginations. Participation in i...

How Can Classroom Discipline Be Improved?

                 Image Credit Since good classroom discipline is essential to an effective learning situation, all teachers must maintain better approaches how these behavioral problems can be minimized to a tolerable level. The adage, "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure," can in effect, guide the teacher. Whenever possible causes of disciplinary problems arise, these should not be ignored, and immediately, they should be treated from the psychological and social point of view that school policies and regulations exist for the good of the operation of the school system. The teacher should be alert and be vigilant to spot students making disturbances and immediately control them. Aggressive behavior should be dealt with positively. There are certain approaches that can serve as pointers or guidelines that can be observed. There should be regular personal conferences with the learners and the parents emphasi...

A Level Coursework

A level coursework is also known as General Certificate of Education or GCE and it is a common qualification that is needed for students from the UK that are 16 and older. There is no age limit to taking the GCE, however usually many schools and colleges want to see that a student has completed and passed at least 5 GCSE courses before an A level course will be allowed to taken. People who are reentering the school system occasionally can have the requirement waived when they can show relevant life experience or hands on training. This is a very important step to continuing an education and completely a degree. It can not be overlooked in any way. Usually A level coursework is comprised of numerous subjects and topics. This is similar to the GCSE coursework. There are a large number of topics to choose from and complete. Depending on the school that a student is going to they may not have every A level coursework available out there. Many students will need to go to multiple schools ...

A Socially Generative, Creative, & Recycled Art Project for Middle School Students

Creating “little donation guys” out of recycled materials is an art project full of positivity. After created by students, these little guys are placed on tables in a local restaurant in order to inform customers of a worthy cause and to collect their spare change. You will likely want to do this project with a talented group of students. This article explains how to fullly complete the project. 1. Decide on a worthy cause your class should fundraise for. It can be beneficial to your students to hold a class discussion in order to make this decision. What causes do we have to choose from? Which cause is the most worthy? Why is it the most worthy? How do we know that this cause is making the most positive impact? If possible, have representatives from this organization visit and teach your students more about the work they do. 2. Create a “t-shirt” to be “worn” by your little donation guy. The t-shirt should clearly display the following: Henry was...

How to Teach Numbers to Very Young Kids

While math is an interesting subject to teach the kids, it could be very confusing to the small kids who do not understand how numbers work.  Children who are not yet well versed with the numbers game will find Math very confusing and very difficult to understand.  The first step that you must do is to introduce the numbers first to the kids by using charts, real objects and flash cards.  Let them watch as you count and flash the numbers in front.  You can explain to them about counting by using real objects and letting them touch and count.  Of course you have to always start with number 1.  For very young children start with 1 number at a time and teach the number for three days.  If the kids will get used to counting and reading the numbers it would become easier for them to spot the numbers.  This is the time that you can use two or three numbers at a time.  Children can easily learn how to count and distinguish numbers through repeat a...

Using Art to Teach English As a Second Language

Language acquisition is more than just a challenge, it is a daily grind that is always exhausting, and at times seemingly unbearable. Traditional education methods while widely used are not always the most effective or rewarding method for English language learners. Try incorporating an artistic approach into the classroom to allow ESL students to connect with content, classmates and the English language. Graphic Media For an English language learner, being faced with long complex text can be an exercise in frustration. Break long, intimidating text documents into smaller parts, and assign each part to an individual student. Students are responsible for interpreting the text and choosing 5-10 words that represent the main idea of the text. Students will graphically represent those words creating a visual summary. Bring the group together and students can use their graphic summary as an aid to present their piece to the group. One student's piece will build on the next, creating a ful...

Signs of a Bad Teacher

  A bad teacher doesn’t involve his students in class discussions. He just wants to do all the talking by reading from his notes. This is an indication that he doesn’t want them to ask questions, afraid that he couldn’t answer. A bad teacher doesn’t know how to deliver and present his lectures in a way that students can easily understand. He is confused with his materials and cannot clearly make a point on what he is talking about. A bad teacher doesn’t mind not explaining the grading system to his students. Thus, leaving the students with no idea at all on how they will be graded. But one thing for sure, shocking grades await them at the end of the semester. A bad teacher doesn’t utilize the entire class period for giving lectures. He always cut short the time and let his students out early for a break. This teacher doesn’t care at all. He seems more interested in his other transactions but definitely not teaching. ...

Education and Its Different Manifest Functions

Education functions as an agent of socialization, as an agent of social placement, as an agent of social and political integration, as an agent of change, as an agent of social control, and as an agent of transmitting culture. As an agent of socialization, educational institution teaches the students in their role as students, in their specific academic subjects and in their political socialization. It teaches the students about the specific subject matters that are appropriate for their age and skill level in kindergarten, primary, secondary and college levels respectively. In the college level, it focused on more detailed knowledge of different subjects that are previously studied as well as it exposed students in the new areas and researches. As an agent of social placement, the educational institution act in identifying the people which are most qualified to fill the available positions in the society. It determines of whom among the people are best fitted for a position in socie...

Free Online Resource Websites for Teachers

With the emergence of technology and everything computerized sprouted different teachers networks that aim to make the teacher’s job easier if not more convenient for them. There are countless sites for teachers that are very beneficial for them. Some networks offer online tutorials that make work for teachers easier and in the comfort of their homes. This online tutorial is better than the traditional classroom tutorial which calls for hands on teaching. Networks for teachers are sprouting in the website but there are some networks that are better than the others. Here are the top three online teacher networks for classroom teacher support that I find very helpful to teachers. Teachers Without Borders Network This is an international site that aims to connect teachers from all corners of the world in order to educate them on how to become more productive teachers in their communities. The network provides different teacher resources that teachers all over the world could...

Guidelines for Writing Essay Questions

                      Image Credit Make directions specific, indicating just what the student is to write about. Write several sentences of directions if necessary. Word each question as simply and clearly as possible. Use a vocabulary consistent with the student's level. Prepare enough questions to cover the material of the unit or course broadly. Write questions that are germane to the course and cover its major objectives. Allow sufficient time for students to answer the questions. Suggest a time allotment for each question so students can pace themselves. Ask questions that require considerable thought. Use essay questions to focus on organizing data, analysis, interpretation, formulating theories, rather than on reporting facts. Give students a choice of questions, say, two out of three, so as not to penalize students who may know the subject as a whole, but happen to be limited in the parti...

What is Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)?

According to Wright & Wright (2006): The definition of “least restrictive environment” did not change in IDEA 2004. Schools are required to educated children with disabilities in the least restrictive environment. Judicial decisions about “mainstreaming” and “least restrictive environment” (LRE) vary, even within the same state. (p. 151) School districts have argued for several years that requiring schools to mainstream children with disabilities in general education classrooms is unfair. The School Districts claim that some children with disabilities need personalized instruction that they cannot provide in a transition general education classroom. Wright & Wright, explains that a student has every right to be educated in the same classroom settings as their none disabled peers, but they are still entitled a “one-one or small group instruction out-side of regular class if necessary for them to learn.” (p. 151) Parents of c...