How To Understand the Process of Protein Synthesis

Protein synthesis deals with the process of transcription and translation. The first step known as transcription involves dealing with the four DNA nucleotides (A, C, G, T). The DNA is then converted to mRNA which consists of A, C, G, U. The second step i
          Protein synthesis is a process that undergoes the individual processes of transcription and translation. Both transcription and translation consists of multiple steps that lead to obtaining a desired product. The first step of protein synthesis is transcription. Transcription is a process that involves the usage of multiple proteins that work on the replication fork. The replication fork consists of a leading strand and a lagging strand. One of the strands is continuously synthesized, which would be the leading strand. The other strand is not continuously synthesized, which will be the lagging strand. DNA replication takes place within the replication fork. The proteins come in when DNA is being synthesized in the replication fork. Helicase is the protein that separates the two strands of the DNA. Then the small binding protein (SSB) comes in which keeps the two separated strands from coming back together. Polymerase is a protein that makes the DNA chain longer; the sliding clamp helps hold the polymerase on the strand. RNA primers are created by protein known as primase. Then RNA primers are taken off by a protein known as RNAse H. The DNA that is separated by the primers is then connected together with the ligase protein.

            In such, replication chain grows from five prime end to three prime end; where the nucleotides are added to the three prime end. The four nucleotides involved in the transcription process are A, C, T, and G. The DNA nucleotides are transcribed into mRNA, where the nucleotides read A, C, U and G. The difference would be that T is replaced with U in mRNA. To differentiate, the process of transcription takes place in the nucleus for eukaryotes and in the cytosol for prokaryotes.

            The second step of protein synthesis is translation. In the process of translation mRNA nucleotides are translated tRNA and then tRNA in transcribed into amino acids. The start codon is AUG. The stop codons are UAA, UAG, and UGA. The first amino acid that gets transcribe is always started off with methionine (met). Three nucleotides in the mRNA are considered a codon and genetic code is read in codons. The codons are then converted to tRNA, which is the anticodon of the mRNA. The codons from mRNA are translated into amino acids my looking at the codon table. The genetic code is read from five prime end to three prime end. The process of translation takes place in the cytosol for both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Thus, as the product a protein chain is formed from the attachment of the ribosome.


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