Queens of England / Britain - 1066 - 2012

Queens of England, Queens of Britain, Empress Matilda, Lady Jane Grey, Queen Mary I, Queen Mary II, Queen Elisabeth I, Queen Elisabeth II, Queen Victoria, Queen Anne,

With the United Kingdom's monarch, Queen Elisabeth II, celebrating her diamond jubilee during 2012, I thought it may be interesting to find out a little about her former peers, the previous queens of England and Great Britain.

There have of course been many queen consorts and queen regents during the country’s history, and many royal princesses who went on to marry foreign kings, but there have only been eight women who have had the right to claim the throne and call themselves the Queen of England / Britain, since the Norman Conquest in 1066.

 It has always been traditional with English / British royals that the heir apparant to the throne is always the eldest son of the monarch, irreguardless as to how many older sisters he may have, hence the reason the country has had so few queens.

However, since October 2011 this rule has been waivered, and from now on a monarch’s first born child will always be the heir apparant, irrespective of gender. 

But, as few queens as the country has had, these eight women have managed to notch up an impressive list of records between them, with two of them having had the country’s longest reigns, one of them is the world's longest reigning queen, two of them have had the country’s shortest reigns, one became the country’s oldest reigning monarch, one was the country’s youngest queen to ascend the throne and not one of them was heir apparent at the time of their birth.

Some other interesting facts about them include, one that never did achieve her rightful place upon the throne, one that should never have been on the throne at all, one was the only queen in history made by parliament to rule as a joint sovereign and three of them, although having been born into a royal family, were not the daughters of a monarch.

In all, the country’s eight queens have reigned for a total of just under two hundred years.

Four of them have produced seventeen heirs between them and the other four died childless and without issue.

Below are the definitions of the various titles a queen may hold.

                                                                              QUEEN DOWAGER 

A queen dowager is the widow of a previous king and usually the mother of the present monarch. 

                                                                              QUEEN CONSORT

A queen consort is the wife of a present king.

                                                                              QUEEN REGENT 

A queen regent is the wife of a present king who finds himself unable to rule, due to being away at war or because of illness, and she is ruling the country on his behalf

                                                                              QUEEN REGNANT

A queen regnant is a queen who is absolute ruler in her own right and able to exercise all sovereign powers. 

                                   EMPRESS MATILDA – Born 1102 – Died 1167. 

We start our list with the Empress Matilda, who was actually christened Maud, but preferred to be known by the French version of her name.

Some historians never give Matilda her due title of queen, as she was never actually crowned  and only ruled for seven weeks, but I have mentioned her in this article as she was made heir presumptive by her father.

Maud / Matilda was the eldest daughter of Norman King, Henry I. She was made Henry’s heir presumptive after the death of her younger brother, William Adelin, who died in the the-white-ship-disaster-of-1120, as Henry only had the two legitimate children, William and Maud.

Matilda came to the throne as de – facto queen on the seventh of April 1141, and only ruled until the twentythird of May, before she was usurped by her cousin Stephen of Blois.

King Stephen reigned for nineteen years, culminating in a period of English history known as the Anarchy which was also known as the Nineteen Year Winter.

Throughout King Stephen’s reign, Matilda and her followers fought tooth and nail in order for her to regain her rightful place upon the throne of England, but it was all to no avail, until in 1153, King Stephen met with Matilda’s eldest son, Henry Fitzempress, and recognised him as his adopted son, had his own sons renounce their claim to the throne and made Henry his heir apparant, an act which eventually put an end to nearly two decades of civil war.

Matilda had been married twice, first to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, whom she married in 1114 and was widowed in 1125. This marriage produced no heirs.

Her second husband was Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou, they were married in 1128 and they had three sons, the future King Henry II of England, Geoffrey of Nantes and William X of Poitou. She was again widowed in 1151.

Matilda died in 1167 at the age of sixty five in Rouen,France, where she was interred in the cathedral there, where her epitaph reads -  Great by birth, greater by marriage, but greatest by motherhood.

                                          LADY JANE GREY – Born 1537 – Died 1554.

Lady Jane Grey is another queen which many historians fail to give due title to.

Lady Jane Grey was a Tudor queen who ruled for just nine days, the shortest rule of any English / British monarch, giving her the title of the Nine Days Queen.

Jane was the daughter of Henry Grey and Frances Brandon and was cousin to the present king  by way of her mother.

Jane was made heir presumptive to the throne by the then very ill, fifteen year old, King Edward VI, in order to stop his older, half sister, Mary Tudor, the true heir to the throne, from becoming queen because she was a Catholic.

Mary was not fazed by his decision and hatched a cunning plot in order to have Jane removed from the throne.

First of all she arranged for Jane to marry staunch Protestant and humanist, Guildford Dudley, in  May 1553.

King Edward VI died on the sixth of July 1553  and Jane was proclaimed queen on the tenth of July. 

Mary then used both Dudley’s and Janes’ father’s involvement in the Wyatt Rebellion, a revolt to stop Mary from marrying the Catholic, Prince Philip of Spain, in order to have them arrested for high treason. Jane and Dudley were both imprisoned on the nineteenth of July and Jane was labelled as an usurper to the throne.

Jane and Dudley were both later tried and convicted of treason and both were executed on the twelth of February 1554. Jane was just seventeen years old at the time of her death, and just sixteen when she became queen, making her the country’s youngest ever queen.

  

                                            MARY I – Born 1516 - Died 1558.

Tudor queen, Mary I was England’s first queen regnant and was proclaimed queen after the imprisoment of Lady Jane Grey in July 1553.

Mary was the daughter and first born child of King Henry VIII and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon.

Mary was a staunch Catholic and restored the country back to Catholocism after her father had initiated the Church of England, an act which was implemented in order to enable him to divorce her own mother.

Mary married Catholic, Prince Philip of Spain in July 1554, but their marriage lasted only four years and produced no heirs.Historians believe Mary may have been suffering from uterine cancer at the time of her marriage which could have accounted for her not being able to conceive and led to her untimely death at the age of just forty two.

Throughout her five year reign Mary was reknowned for her persecution and susequent burning at the stake of hundreds of Protestants, acts which became known as the Marian Persecutions and earned Mary the sobriquet of Bloody Mary.

                                           ELISABETH I – Born 1533 - Died 1603. 

Elisabeth I was the last Tudor monarch. She was the daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife Anne Boleyn, and half sister of the previous monarchs Edward VI and Mary I. 

Elisabeth needs no introduction being hailed as she was, the most influencial monarch in English history.

She was also reknowned for never having married, which earned her the title of the Virgin Queen,  and like her previous half siblings before her, for never having produced an heir.

Some historians believe her decision to never marry was due to her wanting to be a great queen, rather than to any dislike of sex, men, marriage or children, although some historians are of the belief that Elisabeth was sexually abused as an adolescent, but history also states that she had a long term affair with the noblemen Lord Robert Dudley, on whom she bestowed the title of Earl of Leicester in 1564. 

Elisabeth was twenty five years old when she came to the throne in 1558 and reigned for forty five years before her death at the age of sixty nine.

                                         MARY II – Born 1662 - Died 1694. 

Queen Mary II was a Stuart monarch and the only queen in English / British history to have joint sovereignty and equal power with her husband, her cousin and staunch Protestant, the Dutch prince, William of Orange, whom she married in 1677.

Mary was the daughter of James, Duke of York, who went on to be the future king, James II, after the death of his older brother King Charles II, who died without issue.

Mary and William were made joint sovereigns by order of parliament in order to end the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the term used for the period during which her Catholic father, King James II, was deposed.

Mary was queen from 1689 until her death from smallpox at the age of 32 in 1694.

Mary and William produced no heirs during their fourteen year marriage, which resulted in the throne being succeeded by Mary’s younger sister Anne, upon the death of William in 1702. 

  

                                          ANNE – Born 1665 – Died 1714. 

Queen Anne was the last Stuart monarch and ruled England from 1702 until 1707 and Great Britain from 1707 until 1714.

Anne was the daughter of former King James II and sister of former Queen Mary II.

Anne was married to Prince George of Denmark, whom she married in June 1683. During their twenty one year marriage  Anne endured eighteen pregnancies, which resulted in four miscarriages, eight stillbirths, six live births that died before their second birthday and one heir, Prince William, who died at the age of just eleven.

Anne is best remembered for signing the Act of Union between the kingdoms of England and Scotland in 1707and subsequently changing the name of England, Wales and Scotland to Great Britain.

                                            VICTORIA  - Born 1819 – Died 1901.

Queen Victoria was the last monarch of the Royal House of Hanover and was never born to be queen at all. Which is surprising when you consider she went on to have the longest reign of any English / British monarch and the longest reign of any queen regnant in the world.

Victoria was the daughter of  the Duke and Duchess of Kent, the fourth son of King George III, and was chosen as the future queen after the monarchy had been left without an heir apparant for the last two generations.

Victoria came to the throne in 1837 at the age of just eighteen and is another queen which needs no explanation from me. Her reign was legendary as was her love affair with husband Prince Albert, whom she married in 1840, as was her period of mourning after his death in 1861.

Their twenty one year marriage produced nine children, one of which became the future king, Edward VII.

Victoria died of a stroke in January 1901 at the age of 81, after having ruled for sixty three years.

                                       ELISABETH II – Born 1926. 

Queen Elisabeth II is another queen who was never born to the task, but went on to achieve the second longest reign of any English / British monarch.

Elisabeth was born in 1926, the eldest daughter of the Duke and Duchess of York, but after the abdication of her uncle King Edward VII, in 1936, the King’s brother the Duke of York was made king and his eldest daughter suddenly became next in line to the throne.

Elisabeth became queen in February 1952 after the death of her father, and still remains monarch to this day, having had the second longest reign of any English / British monarch in history.

In 2012 the year of her diamond jubilee of sixty years on the throne, she also celebrates her eighty sixth birthday, making her the oldest surviving English / British monarch, with her husband Prince Philip, whom she married in 1947, now aged ninety, the oldest royal consort in English / British history.

Their marriage produced four children, of which their eldest, Charles, Prince of Wales / Duke of Cornwall, is currently the country’s oldest ever Prince of Wales and heir apparant in waiting, at the age of sixty four. 

NOTE – Since King Henry VIII initiated the Church of England and made the monarch the head of that church, no British monarch can be a member of the Catholic faith, and until 2011, no British member of the royal family could even marry a Catholic.

This rule has now been waivered and members of the royal family can marry a Catholic and even bring up their children in the Catholic faith, but if one of these children finds themselves heir to the throne, he / she must convert to Anglicanism, as he / she will become head of the Anglican, Church of England.

  

                     Some other ‘royal’ articles you may be interested in by the same author -

                           timelines-of-the-british-monarchy-1066-2010-1

                           britains-longest-reigning-monarchs 

                           the-white-ship-disaster-of-1120-le-blanche-nef

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As a teacher of elementary and middle school students, one hurdle is teaching the skills to write an organized five paragraph essay. While there are many different methods to choose from, there is a simple formula that can be applied every time.

As a teacher of elementary and middle school students, one hurdle is teaching the skills to write an organized five paragraph essay.  While there are many different methods to choose from, there is a simple formula that can be applied every time.  By creating a strong thesis statement, using a graphic organizer, and implementing the introduction-body-conclusion format, your students can produce a well written five paragraph essay for any writing assignment.

The Thesis Statement is the backbone of any well written essay. As defined by Webster's Online Dictionary; "A thesis statement is the main point that is to be proven by an essay. Usually backed up by examples, the thesis statement is the theme of that whole piece."  By dividing the thesis statement into three parts, you have effectively mapped out the three body paragraphs of the essay.  This is often referred to as a 'three-prong' thesis statement.  Each 'prong' or point mentioned in the thesis identifies the the topic sentence of one of the three body paragraphs.  For example; If you are writing about soccer, your thesis statement might read like this: 'Commitment, strategy, and team work are important elements of a winning soccer team.' With this one sentence, you have told the reader that the main ideas of your body paragraphs are commitment to the sport, strategy of the game, and the importance of team work.

Once you have established a strong thesis statement, it is important to organize your thoughts and any supporting information.  One of the most effective ways to do this is by using a graphic organizer.  A good graphic organizer is simple yet effective, providing space for the writer to list all the facts relevant to their chosen topic.  It provides a visual map to follow while writing the final essay.  The most effective graphic organizers use shapes such as circles or squares, connected with lines to show the flow of information.  It is important to remember that many students will need multiple copies of the graphic organizer as mistakes will be made.  In addition to the thesis statement, and supporting details, the graphic organizer should help to organize the opening and closing thoughts.  Remember that people usually remember the first and last thing that they read from any document. 

As the author, it is important to grab the reader's attention with a strong attention getter or 'hook'.  The most common attention getter is the question.  'Have you ever wondered what it takes to be a valued player on an amazing soccer team?'  Another effective way to get the readers attention is to create a mental image that the reader can become part of.  'Crisp morning air whipped at my face, the smell of fresh cut grass in the air.  Focus!  Focus!  Tom takes the ball.  He is dribbling toward me, his feet moving fast.  I center myself, ready and waiting.  He passes!  With one swift kick, I send the ball sailing passed the goalie to score the first point of the game!'  The introduction of any writing assignment should begin with an attention getter, and once the reader's interest has been piqued, it is important to keep it.  The introduction should tell the reader some basic information about the topic and then finish with the thesis statement. The following body paragraphs should give facts to support the three main points mentioned in the thesis statement.  One paragraph dedicated to each point will create the three necessary body paragraphs.  Each body paragraph should have a topic sentence, at least three supporting facts or details, and a closing sentence.  The final paragraph of the essay is the conclusion.  This is where you need to 'sum up' the information given in the body.  One way to create a solid conclusion is to restate what is said in the introduction.  Take the basic information, and even the thesis statement, and rewrite it.  Be sure to include reasons why the information is important or helpful.  Make the reader feel that their time was well spent.  After completing the written assignment, it is important to remember to edit, edit, edit!  A well written essay can be ruined by too many mistakes in grammar and sentence structure. 

As a teacher, is is important to give students the strongest foundation for writing possible.  Using the simple formula based on the three-prong thesis statement will give them a pattern to use with any writing assignment.  By teaching them to use a graphic organizer to organize their thoughts and information before writing, the process becomes much easier.  And, of course, following the standard five paragraph format will ensure that they are prepared for assignments throughout their education.

Sample Five Paragraph - Graphic Organizer:

K+12 Education in the Philippines

Review of the newly implemented K+12 Education in the Philippines.

The Enhanced K+12 Basic Education Program in the Philippines has been officially started. It has been initiated by the Aquino administration where students will have to undergo a new system of education.

This program will require all incoming students to enroll into two more years of basic education. Thus, the K+12 System will basically include the Universal kindergarten, 6 years of elementary, 4 years of junior high school with an additional 2 years for senior high school.

Moreover, the program aims to uplift the quality of education in the Philippines in order for graduates to be easily employed. The program also aims to meet the standards required for professionals who would want to work abroad.

Most importantly, the system aims to fully enhance and develop the students in order for them to be well-prepared especially in emotional and cognitive aspects. Through this, graduates will be able to face the pressures of their future workplace.

However, not all are in favor of the K+12 Education. There are students complaining of the additional years and there are parents who are not in favor of the additional expenses. But indeed, it is an undeniable fact that additional years in the education system will really require more budgets not just from the government but from the parents as well.

Aside from this, students will need additional classrooms, school supplies and facilities. The program would need more qualified teachers as well.

I personally believe that the K+12 Education in the Philippines would uplift the quality of lifestyle of the Filipino people. But, this could not be done without being prepared. And since the program has already been implemented, what is more important now is for students to do their best and study despite of the lack of facilities. Nothing is impossible when we persist.

As for teachers, continue to teach with love and love what you teach despites of your own personal triumphs and economic crisis. Always remember that the future of the students depends upon you.

As for the parents who have been doing their best in pursuing their child’s education, remember that the program aims what’s best for your children. It will help your children to become globally competitive and if your children will succeed, you will also succeed.

There may be a lot of factors to consider for the K+12 Education to succeed. But as long as we open our minds to change and we will take it on a positive way, we will definitely attain our most-aspired educational standards which will play a great role in our country’s development and will therefore, uplift us from poverty.

Common Problems in Elementary Education

Elementary education also known as primary education plays a vital role in teaching students the basic of academic essentials. However, there are also problems with school systems that can hinder learning.

Elementary education prepares and introduces students to the very foundation of academic essentials. It is here where they receive a general education such as writing, reading, math, science, social studies and history. In this level of education, students are comprehensively trained for high school level and college curriculum. And as grade level advances, learning methods and materials intensify even more. Elementary education also known as primary educations is advantageous to students, however, there are some problems with elementary schooling that exist within the system.

Learning Method

Teachers in elementary education have a fixed method of transmitting learning information to students. In other words, the coursework is fixed. Teachers will teach in a manner that is effective and appeals to majority of his students. But this method won’t work effectively for other students who have their own unique learning style. Some students can learn and understand the lessons by merely listening to their teacher’s lecture. On the other hand, there are also some students who can only fully understand the lessons if teachers will use a visual learning method. A fixed teaching method and materials are presented and put into practice by most elementary school teachers that is why students will not always have the privilege to learn in a manner that is most comfortable for them.

Budget Issue

The quality of learning in elementary education suffers because of limited academic budget. Lack of appropriate and enough school budgets will have an impact on school’s spending. The school will be incapable of providing students the suitable learning materials and tools, new technology, new or renovated classrooms, furniture and other resources. If classrooms are limited, it follows then that the number of students per class will grow in size and the teacher in charge will not be able to manage them all. This will eventually lead to a poor teaching quality. This is so because teachers will find it difficult to give adequate and individualized attention to his students.

Standardized Test

Students are given the standardized tests to rank them academically. This has become teacher’s primary concern of improving their scores and they are prioritizing this one. They take time out of their actual lessons to concentrate on teaching their students how to answer a multiple choice questions and how to relax and stay calm when taking the test. The teacher’s focus on standardized test distracts and disregards the lessons that he is supposed to teach.

Objective Tests: Guidelines for Writing Matching Type and Multiple-Choice Questions

In a matching test, there are usually two columns of items. For each item in one column, the students are required to select a correct item. The basic form of the multiple-choice item is lead, which defines the problem to be completed by one of a number of alternatives are referred to as "distractors." In most cases four or five alternatives are given.
                    multiple choice and matching type

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Matching Type Questions

These are used to measure the learners' thinking at the lower levels of knowledge and comprehension. They are relatively easy to construct and can be corrected quickly. In a matching test, there are usually two columns of items. For each item in one column, the students are required to select a correct item. The items may be names, concepts, places, phrases or events.

To discourage guessing, the teacher should put more responses on the right-hand column than the left-hand column. It is important that the entire test appears on the same page so that the learners will not turn the page back and forth when searching for the right answer.

One problem of matching test is that it often requires recall rather than comprehension and more sophisticated levels of thinking. Higher levels of cognition may be called for in matching questions that involves analogies, cause and effect, complex relationships, and theories, but such items are hard to construct.

Guidelines for Writing Matching Questions

  • The directions should be brief and clear indicating the basis for matching items in column A with items in column B.
  • The entire matching question should appear on a single page. Running the question on two pages is confusing and distracting for students.
  • Wording of items in column A should be shorter than those in column B. This permits students to scan the test question quickly.
  • Column A should contain no more than 10 test items; 5 or 6 items are ideal. Longer lists confuse students.
  • There should be more alternatives in column B than there are items in column A to prevent answering the last one or two items by simple elimination. Column B should contain 6 or 7 items if column A contains 5. A list of 10 items in column A should be accompanied by about 12 items in column B.
  • Column A items should be numbered, as they will be graded as individual questions, and column B items should be lettered.
  • Column A items should be presented in a logical order, say alphabetically or chronologically (but not one that gives away the answer), so the student can scan them quickly in search for correct answers.
  • Items in both columns should be similar in terms of content, form, grammar, and length. Dissimilar alternatives in column B result in irrelevant clues that can be used to eliminate items or guess answers by the test-wise student.
  • Negative statements (in either column) should be avoided.

Many multiple-choice questions can be converted into a matching test.

Multiple-Choice Questions

These are the most popular objective test items, especially at the secondary level. Some students think it is fun to answer because they see the task almost as a puzzle, putting piece together, doing easy pieces first and saving the hard piece for last. The basic form of the multiple-choice item is lead, which defines the problem to be completed by one of a number of alternatives are referred to as "distractors." In most cases four or five alternatives are given.

This type of test has the capacity to test not only knowledge and comprehension but also some higher level thinking abilities. They can be adapted to a variety of subject matter content and they can be scored easily.

Guidelines for Writing Multiple-Choice Questions

  • The central issue or problem should be stated in the stem. It should be a singular statement, topic, or problem.
  • In the stem, a direct question is preferable to an incomplete statement.
  • Include in the stem any words that might otherwise be repeated in the alternative responses. This reduces wordiness in the alternatives and increases clarity in the stem.
  • Negative statements in the stem and alternatives should be avoided.
  • Use numbers to label stems and letters to label alternatives.
  • Avoid absolute terms (always, never or none), especially in the alternatives; a test-wise person usually avoids answers that include them.
  • Avoid using items directly from the text or workbook, since this practice encourages memorization.
  • Arrange alternatives in some logical order, for example, alphabetically or chronologically.
  • Alternatives should be parallel in content, form length, and grammar. Avoid making the correct alternative different from wrong alternatives: longer or shorter, more precisely stated, having a part of speech others lack.
  • Correct responses should be in random order. Do not use one particular letter more often than others or create a pattern for the placement of correct responses.
  • Alternative responses should be plausible to less knowledgeable students.
  • The alternatives "All of the above" and "None of the above" should be used sparingly, since the test writer may fail to take into consideration all the nuances in the choices or the test taker may see other nuances.

The Development of the Educational System in the Philippines

The educational system in the Philippines had undergone various stages of development. These stages of educational evolution can be traced way back from the Pre-Spanish period, to the Spanish Period, to the American period, to the Commonwealth and the Japanese period going to the present.

The educational system in the Philippines had undergone various stages of development. These stages of educational evolution can be traced way back from the Pre-Spanish period, to the Spanish Period, to the American period, to the Commonwealth and the Japanese period going to the present.

There is no definite information about the system of education in the Philippines during the Pre-Spanish period.

According to the history, the Philippine education had manifested in the culture of the people. However, there are no definite records that were available showing the types of schools that were established by the natives, as well as on the subjects or methods that they used.

There were Written and Oral literatures but all of the records that were written were accordingly destroyed by the Spanish colonizers; this was because they believed that those written records in literature were works of devils.

Some of the Oral literatures have been preserved until today and these are in the forms of proverbs, songs, maxims, epics, as well as in the forms of various tales and religious or criminological codes. There were also little knowledge in astronomy and engineering.

During the Spanish period, an educational decree was passed in an attempt to reform the educational system in the Philippines. Included in the decree are the establishments of complete secondary as well as collegiate levels, as well as the establishment of teacher-training institutions.

During the American period, a system of public education was established. The system was patterned after the American educational system. The Colleges and Universities that were organized during the time of the Spanish were continued. The programs of studies were revised; adapting the changes of time.

During the Commonwealth period and Japanese occupation, the curricula in the elementary as well as in the secondary schools were revised. Among of developments in education during the Commonwealth period were the re-orientation of educational plans and policies to carry out the educational mandate of the constitution, the revision of the elementary and secondary school curricula to carry out the objectives of education embodied in the constitution and many more.

Today, the Philippine education is patterned from the state school system of the United States. The education establishments comprised of the private schools that are owned and manage by private individuals or corporations and the public schools that are owned and manage by the state.

According to the history, the Philippine education evolves from its simple beginning and was shaped by foreign influences.