The Norman Dynasty - A Family History

The Norman Dynasty. The Royal House of Norman. King William I. William the Conqueror. King William II. King Henry I. King Stephen. Treaty of Wallingford. Sons and daughters of the Kings of the Norman Dynasty. The White Ship disaster. Queen Consorts of the Norman Dynasty.

The Norman Dynasty ruled England for 98 years from 1066 until 1154, by way of four kings.

After defeating the army of Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings in 1066, William the Bastard of Normandy, was the last person to conquer England and take the crown, hence his title of William the Conqueror.

Although King of England, William I ruled from his native France throughout the majority of his reign.

Even though the King was rarely in attendence, he went on to make several changes around the country, all of which were well accepted.

William built several castles and fortified keeps around the land, the most famous being that of the White Tower at the Tower of London.

He made sweeping changes to the English language, making Norman French the predominant language of the ruling classes.

He incorporated the Anglo - Norman culture, despoiled English aristocracy by way of distributing parcels of land of equal size - in order to quell any hierarchy within - defined the English shire system ( English counties), instigated the Doomsday Book and depopulated the New Forest turning it into the largest afforested hunting area in the land.

     

William was born in Falaise, Normandy, in 1028, the son of Robert of Normandy and his lover Herleva Fulbert, hence his title of William the Bastard.

He married Matilda of Flanders sometime in 1053, who was the daughter of Baldwin, Count of Flanders and Adela of France.Matilda was a seventh generation descendent of Alfred the Great, making all sovereigns of Britain direct descendents of hers.

It is said that they had 11 children, although a full record of this is not known. It has also been recorded that he had at least two illigitimate children, but again there is no record of this, leaving historians to believe that he did not in fact have any illegitimate children. 

                                                   The recorded children of William and Matilda are as follows:

Robert Curthose - 1053 - 1134 who married Sybil of Conversano, daughter of Geoffrey of Conversano.They had two children, William, Count of Flanders 1102 - 1128 and Henry of Normandy 1102 - 1151.

It is recorded that his wife Sybil was murded by Robert's mistress Agnes Giffard. 

Richard, 1054 - 1081, who became Duke of Bernay was killed by a stag whilst out hunting.

Adeliza, circa 1055 - 1065.

Cecilia, 1055 - 1126, who became Abbess of Holy Trinity Abbey, in Caen, Normandy.

William, 1056 - 1100, who became King William II in 1087.

Agatha, 1064 - 1079.

Constance, 1066 - 1090 who married Alan IV Duke of Brittainy, they had no heirs.

Adela, 1067 - 1137 who married Stephen Count of Bloise, who became King Stephen in 1135.

Henry, 1068 - 1135 who became King Henry I in 1100. He married twice, first to Edith of Scotland and then Adeliza of Leuven.

The Queen Matilda, died in 1083 and is buried in the abbey of Abbaye - aux - Dames in Caen. 

King William I died in 1087 after a fall from his horse caused a fatal stomach injury. He was buried in the neighbouring abbey of Abbaye - aux - Hommes, also in Caen, Normandy.

    

William II known as William Rufus was the third son of William the Conqueror and his wife Queen Consort Matilda.

He was born in 1056 and became King of the English upon the death of his father in 1087. His coronation was held on the 26th of September of the same year and he reigned for 13 years until his untimely death during a hunting expedition in the New forest on the 2nd of August 1100 when he was accidently shot with an arrow through the lung by his friend Walter Tirel.

So frightened was Tirel that he would be accused of the murder of his friend he fled to France never to see England again, although the act was never considered an act of wrong doing, with the King's followers, family and other members of the hunting party all agreeing that it was an accident. The place where he fell is marked by the Rufus Stone in the New Forest, Hampshire.

The king was known as Rufus due to his red hair and eyes of different colours, an unusual looking man with an even more unusual personality.It has been recorded that he was an ill tempered, tyrannical and harsh monarch towards both his subjects and advisors.He was also considered to be sceptical about religion, unheard of in that day and age.

All these facts may well have contributed to the reason why the king never married, as it is said he sought the hand of many but was never accepted.

After his death the king was buried in Winchester Cathedral, where one year later one of the towers there came crashing to the ground, some at the time believed it was the judgement of God towards the unamiable king.

  

Henry was the last born child of William the Conqueror and his Queen Consort Matilda.

He was born in 1068 and as the royal couple's last child he had never been groomed to be king, instead, as was tradition, he had been groomed for a life in the church.He recieved an exemplorary education becoming well educated in all subjects and he was the only Norman king that spoke fluent English, hence his name of Beauclerc.

He married Edith of Scotland - who changed her name to Matilda upon her marriage - on the 11th of November 1100 in Westminster Abbey, who was the daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret of Scotland.

They had three children;

Matilda, Empress of Rome, 1102 - 1167 who married Henry V Holy Roman Emperor in 1114. They were married until his death in 1125 and it would appear they had no issue.

She then married Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou in 1128. They had three children Henry 1133 - 1189, future King Henry II of England, Geoffrey, Count of Nantes 1134 - 1158 and William X, Count of Poitou 1136 - 1163.

William Adelin, 1103 - 1120, who married Matilda of Anjou.

William died in the White Ship disaster ( read the-white-ship-disaster-of-1120-le-blanche-nef)  of 25th of November 1120 at the age of only 17. The disaster claimed the lives of 300 people 160 of which were French and English nobility.Upon the news of the tragedy the king apparantly fainted and so affected by it was he, that it was said he was never the same man again. 

William's untimely death led to the period in British history known as The Anarchy.

As his only son and heir had died the crown should have gone to his daughter Matilda, which the English were happy to accept, having had successful queens in the past, but the Normans were sceptical about having a woman on the throne, particularly one that had never been groomed to rule, so her succession to the throne was thwarted in favour of Henry's nephew, Stephen of Blois.

However the Empress Matilda was not happy to give up her birth right without a fight, resulting in a long civil war known as the Anarchy, which was not resolved until Stephen named Matilda's son Henry Plantaganet as his heir.

His wife Matilda, who was also travelling with him, but onboard another ship, survived the disaster. She never remarried and went on to be the Abbess of Fontevroult Abbey where she remained until her death in 1154. They had no issue.

King Henry and Queen Consort Matilda had two other children, Euphemia and Richard who both died in infancy.

Queen Consort Matilda died in 1118 and was interred in Westminster Abbey.

After the death of his heir the king was desperate to produce another son, so he married a second time two years later.

He married Adeliza of Leuvain, daughter of Godfrey I, Count of Louvain and Ida of Namur. on the 2nd of February 1120, when she was just 18 and he was 53.

They were married for 14 years before she was widowed in 1135, but their union did not produce the king's longed for son and heir.

She went on to marry William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel and they had seven children before her death in 1151.

King Henry died on the 1st of December 1135 from food poisoning in Saint - Denis - en - Lyons in France. It is said that his body was encased in the stomach of a cow to preserve it during his journey back to England for burial.He was interred in Reading Abbey, Berkshire, which he had founded 14 years previously.

The abbey no longer exists, but there is a plaque on a wall of a school that was built in the location of the former abbey, that marks his grave.

Due to the sudden death of his son William, he died without an heir, which is somewhat ironic as he apparantly had more illigitimate children than any other royal in the history of the British monarchy.

Records show that he had 17 children from seven different long standing mistresses as well as 7 other illigitimate children from another seven affairs.

  

Stephen of Bloise was born in 1096 in Blois, France the son of Stephen II, Count of Blois and Adela of Normandy.

He became de facto king of England upon the death of the Norman King Henry I from December 22nd 1135 until 1154.

This act, which denied the rightful heir to the throne to Empress Matilda, daughter of King Henry I, caused many years of civil war, until he gave up the crown in favour of her son Henry Plantaganet.

Stephen of Blois married Matilda of Boulogne ( 1105 - 1152) daughter of Eustace III of Boulogne and Mary of Scotland, in 1125.

They had five children;

Eustace IV, Count of Boulogne 1127 - 1153.He married Constance of France in 1140, they had no issue.

William I, Count of Blois, 1137 - 1159, who married Isobel de Warenne, Countess of Surrey, they had no heirs.

Marie I, Countess of Boulogne 1136 - 1182, she was married to Mathew of Alsace and they had two daughters, Ida, Countess of Boulogne 1160 - 1216, and Mathilde of Flanders, 1170 - 1210.

King Stephen and Matilda had two other children, Baldwin and Matilda, who both died in infancy. Stephen also had at least three illigitimate children during his lifetime.

King Stephen died in Dover, Kent in 1154 and was interred at Faversham Abbey, two years after the death of his wife. They were both interred at Faversham Abbey, Kent, which the couple had both founded in 1148.

In 1153 in order to halt the bitter civil war between him self and his cousin Empress Matilda, Stephen had signed the Treaty of Wallingford, a document that meant Stephen would pass over his own son William as heir to the throne, in favour of Matilda's son Henry Plantaganet of Anjou.

Upon King Stephen's death, King Henry II took the crown, the first Plantaganet king and first King of England, as opposed to King of the English as had been the title of all the previous Norman kings.

                                     

FOR OTHER BRITISH MONARCHY TIMELINES, VISIT timelines-of-the-british-monarchy-1066-2010 

                                                             THE NORMAN DYNASTY.

                                               WILLIAM I, WILLIAM THE CONQEROR;  1066 - 1100 - 21 year reign.

                                               WILLIAM II : 1087 - 1100 - 13 year reign.

                                               HENRY I : 1100 - 1135 - 35 year reign

                                               STEPHEN ; 1135 - 1154 - 19 year reign. 

                                    AN ACCOUNT OF THE WHITE SHIP DISASTER:

                                     the-white-ship-disaster-of-1120-le-blanche-nef

                                       MORE BRITISH MONARCHY FAMILY HISTORY  

                                      the-plantagenet-dynasty-a-family-history-part-one 

                                      the-plantagenet-dynasty-a-family-history-part-two

                                      the-royal-house-of-lancaster-a-family-history 

                                      the-royal-house-of-york-a-family-history 

                                      the-tudor-dynasty-a-family-history 

                                      the-stuart-dynasty-a-family-history 

                                      the-royal-house-of-hanover-a-family-history 

                                      the-royal-house-of-windsor-a-family-history

                                             © D.B.Bellamy.October, 2010.

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The Thesis Statement is the backbone of any well written essay. As defined by Webster's Online Dictionary; "A thesis statement is the main point that is to be proven by an essay. Usually backed up by examples, the thesis statement is the theme of that whole piece."  By dividing the thesis statement into three parts, you have effectively mapped out the three body paragraphs of the essay.  This is often referred to as a 'three-prong' thesis statement.  Each 'prong' or point mentioned in the thesis identifies the the topic sentence of one of the three body paragraphs.  For example; If you are writing about soccer, your thesis statement might read like this: 'Commitment, strategy, and team work are important elements of a winning soccer team.' With this one sentence, you have told the reader that the main ideas of your body paragraphs are commitment to the sport, strategy of the game, and the importance of team work.

Once you have established a strong thesis statement, it is important to organize your thoughts and any supporting information.  One of the most effective ways to do this is by using a graphic organizer.  A good graphic organizer is simple yet effective, providing space for the writer to list all the facts relevant to their chosen topic.  It provides a visual map to follow while writing the final essay.  The most effective graphic organizers use shapes such as circles or squares, connected with lines to show the flow of information.  It is important to remember that many students will need multiple copies of the graphic organizer as mistakes will be made.  In addition to the thesis statement, and supporting details, the graphic organizer should help to organize the opening and closing thoughts.  Remember that people usually remember the first and last thing that they read from any document. 

As the author, it is important to grab the reader's attention with a strong attention getter or 'hook'.  The most common attention getter is the question.  'Have you ever wondered what it takes to be a valued player on an amazing soccer team?'  Another effective way to get the readers attention is to create a mental image that the reader can become part of.  'Crisp morning air whipped at my face, the smell of fresh cut grass in the air.  Focus!  Focus!  Tom takes the ball.  He is dribbling toward me, his feet moving fast.  I center myself, ready and waiting.  He passes!  With one swift kick, I send the ball sailing passed the goalie to score the first point of the game!'  The introduction of any writing assignment should begin with an attention getter, and once the reader's interest has been piqued, it is important to keep it.  The introduction should tell the reader some basic information about the topic and then finish with the thesis statement. The following body paragraphs should give facts to support the three main points mentioned in the thesis statement.  One paragraph dedicated to each point will create the three necessary body paragraphs.  Each body paragraph should have a topic sentence, at least three supporting facts or details, and a closing sentence.  The final paragraph of the essay is the conclusion.  This is where you need to 'sum up' the information given in the body.  One way to create a solid conclusion is to restate what is said in the introduction.  Take the basic information, and even the thesis statement, and rewrite it.  Be sure to include reasons why the information is important or helpful.  Make the reader feel that their time was well spent.  After completing the written assignment, it is important to remember to edit, edit, edit!  A well written essay can be ruined by too many mistakes in grammar and sentence structure. 

As a teacher, is is important to give students the strongest foundation for writing possible.  Using the simple formula based on the three-prong thesis statement will give them a pattern to use with any writing assignment.  By teaching them to use a graphic organizer to organize their thoughts and information before writing, the process becomes much easier.  And, of course, following the standard five paragraph format will ensure that they are prepared for assignments throughout their education.

Sample Five Paragraph - Graphic Organizer:

K+12 Education in the Philippines

Review of the newly implemented K+12 Education in the Philippines.

The Enhanced K+12 Basic Education Program in the Philippines has been officially started. It has been initiated by the Aquino administration where students will have to undergo a new system of education.

This program will require all incoming students to enroll into two more years of basic education. Thus, the K+12 System will basically include the Universal kindergarten, 6 years of elementary, 4 years of junior high school with an additional 2 years for senior high school.

Moreover, the program aims to uplift the quality of education in the Philippines in order for graduates to be easily employed. The program also aims to meet the standards required for professionals who would want to work abroad.

Most importantly, the system aims to fully enhance and develop the students in order for them to be well-prepared especially in emotional and cognitive aspects. Through this, graduates will be able to face the pressures of their future workplace.

However, not all are in favor of the K+12 Education. There are students complaining of the additional years and there are parents who are not in favor of the additional expenses. But indeed, it is an undeniable fact that additional years in the education system will really require more budgets not just from the government but from the parents as well.

Aside from this, students will need additional classrooms, school supplies and facilities. The program would need more qualified teachers as well.

I personally believe that the K+12 Education in the Philippines would uplift the quality of lifestyle of the Filipino people. But, this could not be done without being prepared. And since the program has already been implemented, what is more important now is for students to do their best and study despite of the lack of facilities. Nothing is impossible when we persist.

As for teachers, continue to teach with love and love what you teach despites of your own personal triumphs and economic crisis. Always remember that the future of the students depends upon you.

As for the parents who have been doing their best in pursuing their child’s education, remember that the program aims what’s best for your children. It will help your children to become globally competitive and if your children will succeed, you will also succeed.

There may be a lot of factors to consider for the K+12 Education to succeed. But as long as we open our minds to change and we will take it on a positive way, we will definitely attain our most-aspired educational standards which will play a great role in our country’s development and will therefore, uplift us from poverty.

Common Problems in Elementary Education

Elementary education also known as primary education plays a vital role in teaching students the basic of academic essentials. However, there are also problems with school systems that can hinder learning.

Elementary education prepares and introduces students to the very foundation of academic essentials. It is here where they receive a general education such as writing, reading, math, science, social studies and history. In this level of education, students are comprehensively trained for high school level and college curriculum. And as grade level advances, learning methods and materials intensify even more. Elementary education also known as primary educations is advantageous to students, however, there are some problems with elementary schooling that exist within the system.

Learning Method

Teachers in elementary education have a fixed method of transmitting learning information to students. In other words, the coursework is fixed. Teachers will teach in a manner that is effective and appeals to majority of his students. But this method won’t work effectively for other students who have their own unique learning style. Some students can learn and understand the lessons by merely listening to their teacher’s lecture. On the other hand, there are also some students who can only fully understand the lessons if teachers will use a visual learning method. A fixed teaching method and materials are presented and put into practice by most elementary school teachers that is why students will not always have the privilege to learn in a manner that is most comfortable for them.

Budget Issue

The quality of learning in elementary education suffers because of limited academic budget. Lack of appropriate and enough school budgets will have an impact on school’s spending. The school will be incapable of providing students the suitable learning materials and tools, new technology, new or renovated classrooms, furniture and other resources. If classrooms are limited, it follows then that the number of students per class will grow in size and the teacher in charge will not be able to manage them all. This will eventually lead to a poor teaching quality. This is so because teachers will find it difficult to give adequate and individualized attention to his students.

Standardized Test

Students are given the standardized tests to rank them academically. This has become teacher’s primary concern of improving their scores and they are prioritizing this one. They take time out of their actual lessons to concentrate on teaching their students how to answer a multiple choice questions and how to relax and stay calm when taking the test. The teacher’s focus on standardized test distracts and disregards the lessons that he is supposed to teach.

The Development of the Educational System in the Philippines

The educational system in the Philippines had undergone various stages of development. These stages of educational evolution can be traced way back from the Pre-Spanish period, to the Spanish Period, to the American period, to the Commonwealth and the Japanese period going to the present.

The educational system in the Philippines had undergone various stages of development. These stages of educational evolution can be traced way back from the Pre-Spanish period, to the Spanish Period, to the American period, to the Commonwealth and the Japanese period going to the present.

There is no definite information about the system of education in the Philippines during the Pre-Spanish period.

According to the history, the Philippine education had manifested in the culture of the people. However, there are no definite records that were available showing the types of schools that were established by the natives, as well as on the subjects or methods that they used.

There were Written and Oral literatures but all of the records that were written were accordingly destroyed by the Spanish colonizers; this was because they believed that those written records in literature were works of devils.

Some of the Oral literatures have been preserved until today and these are in the forms of proverbs, songs, maxims, epics, as well as in the forms of various tales and religious or criminological codes. There were also little knowledge in astronomy and engineering.

During the Spanish period, an educational decree was passed in an attempt to reform the educational system in the Philippines. Included in the decree are the establishments of complete secondary as well as collegiate levels, as well as the establishment of teacher-training institutions.

During the American period, a system of public education was established. The system was patterned after the American educational system. The Colleges and Universities that were organized during the time of the Spanish were continued. The programs of studies were revised; adapting the changes of time.

During the Commonwealth period and Japanese occupation, the curricula in the elementary as well as in the secondary schools were revised. Among of developments in education during the Commonwealth period were the re-orientation of educational plans and policies to carry out the educational mandate of the constitution, the revision of the elementary and secondary school curricula to carry out the objectives of education embodied in the constitution and many more.

Today, the Philippine education is patterned from the state school system of the United States. The education establishments comprised of the private schools that are owned and manage by private individuals or corporations and the public schools that are owned and manage by the state.

According to the history, the Philippine education evolves from its simple beginning and was shaped by foreign influences.

Objective Tests: Guidelines for Writing Matching Type and Multiple-Choice Questions

In a matching test, there are usually two columns of items. For each item in one column, the students are required to select a correct item. The basic form of the multiple-choice item is lead, which defines the problem to be completed by one of a number of alternatives are referred to as "distractors." In most cases four or five alternatives are given.
                    multiple choice and matching type

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Matching Type Questions

These are used to measure the learners' thinking at the lower levels of knowledge and comprehension. They are relatively easy to construct and can be corrected quickly. In a matching test, there are usually two columns of items. For each item in one column, the students are required to select a correct item. The items may be names, concepts, places, phrases or events.

To discourage guessing, the teacher should put more responses on the right-hand column than the left-hand column. It is important that the entire test appears on the same page so that the learners will not turn the page back and forth when searching for the right answer.

One problem of matching test is that it often requires recall rather than comprehension and more sophisticated levels of thinking. Higher levels of cognition may be called for in matching questions that involves analogies, cause and effect, complex relationships, and theories, but such items are hard to construct.

Guidelines for Writing Matching Questions

  • The directions should be brief and clear indicating the basis for matching items in column A with items in column B.
  • The entire matching question should appear on a single page. Running the question on two pages is confusing and distracting for students.
  • Wording of items in column A should be shorter than those in column B. This permits students to scan the test question quickly.
  • Column A should contain no more than 10 test items; 5 or 6 items are ideal. Longer lists confuse students.
  • There should be more alternatives in column B than there are items in column A to prevent answering the last one or two items by simple elimination. Column B should contain 6 or 7 items if column A contains 5. A list of 10 items in column A should be accompanied by about 12 items in column B.
  • Column A items should be numbered, as they will be graded as individual questions, and column B items should be lettered.
  • Column A items should be presented in a logical order, say alphabetically or chronologically (but not one that gives away the answer), so the student can scan them quickly in search for correct answers.
  • Items in both columns should be similar in terms of content, form, grammar, and length. Dissimilar alternatives in column B result in irrelevant clues that can be used to eliminate items or guess answers by the test-wise student.
  • Negative statements (in either column) should be avoided.

Many multiple-choice questions can be converted into a matching test.

Multiple-Choice Questions

These are the most popular objective test items, especially at the secondary level. Some students think it is fun to answer because they see the task almost as a puzzle, putting piece together, doing easy pieces first and saving the hard piece for last. The basic form of the multiple-choice item is lead, which defines the problem to be completed by one of a number of alternatives are referred to as "distractors." In most cases four or five alternatives are given.

This type of test has the capacity to test not only knowledge and comprehension but also some higher level thinking abilities. They can be adapted to a variety of subject matter content and they can be scored easily.

Guidelines for Writing Multiple-Choice Questions

  • The central issue or problem should be stated in the stem. It should be a singular statement, topic, or problem.
  • In the stem, a direct question is preferable to an incomplete statement.
  • Include in the stem any words that might otherwise be repeated in the alternative responses. This reduces wordiness in the alternatives and increases clarity in the stem.
  • Negative statements in the stem and alternatives should be avoided.
  • Use numbers to label stems and letters to label alternatives.
  • Avoid absolute terms (always, never or none), especially in the alternatives; a test-wise person usually avoids answers that include them.
  • Avoid using items directly from the text or workbook, since this practice encourages memorization.
  • Arrange alternatives in some logical order, for example, alphabetically or chronologically.
  • Alternatives should be parallel in content, form length, and grammar. Avoid making the correct alternative different from wrong alternatives: longer or shorter, more precisely stated, having a part of speech others lack.
  • Correct responses should be in random order. Do not use one particular letter more often than others or create a pattern for the placement of correct responses.
  • Alternative responses should be plausible to less knowledgeable students.
  • The alternatives "All of the above" and "None of the above" should be used sparingly, since the test writer may fail to take into consideration all the nuances in the choices or the test taker may see other nuances.