The Tudor Dynasty; A Family History

A family history of the 118 year Tudor dynasty of England. Featuring Henry VIII, Elisabeth I, Anne Boleyn and other British monarchs of the Tudor dynasty.

The Tudor dynasty reigned for 118 years,after the first Tudor King,Henry Tudor, defeated Richard III at the battle of Bosworth in August 1485.

The death of the Yorkist king and defeat of his army, saw the end of the War of the Roses, that had raged for 32 years, from 1455 to 1487.

The war of the Roses were a series of civil wars fought between the houses of York and Lancaster.The name was based on their badges, the white rose for the house of Lancaster, the red for the house of York.

 

Henry Tudor, first Tudor monarch.

To unite the two families, newly crowned King Henry VII,married Elisabeth of York,shortly after his coronation.

They had seven children, although only four survived into adulthood, 

                                                        Arthur born 20 September 1486. 

                                                        Henry born 28 June 1491,

                                                        Margaret born 29 November 1489 

                                                        Mary born 18 March 1496.

There were no illegitimate children of King Henry VII.

Elisabeth died in childbirth in 1503, giving birth to her seventh child, Katherine, who died shortly after her birth.

Their other two deceased children were Elisabeth, born 2nd July 1492, died 14th September 1492, 

                                                        Edmund, born 21st February 1499 died 19th June 1500.

Of their surviving daughters, the elder, Margaret, was born on the 29 November 1489.During her 52 years she married three times and gave birth to 8 children, with only two of them living into adulthood.

Her first marriage was to James IV of Scotland, in 1503, at the age of 13.

They had six children, with only their son James, surviving infancy. He was later to become James V of Scotland.This marriage ended with the death of James IV at the battle of Flodden Field in 1513.

Her second marriage was to Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus.

This union produced two children,a daughter Alexander, who did not survive infancy and a son James, who was later to become James VI of Scotland and James the 1st of England.

In 1527 Margaret had this union annuled.

Her third marriage, in 1528 was to Henry Stewart. There were no children from this union.

After her death from a stroke, Margaret was interred at the Carthusian Priory of St John, in Perth Scotland.

The other surviving daughter Mary, was born on the 18th March 1496

in 1514 at the age of 18 she was sent to France to marry King Louis XII.Their marriage was to last only 3 months. It is rumoured that the much older Louis, whom after three marriages was so desperate for a male heir, apparantly died from over exertion in the pursuit of this goal.

The following year, of her own choice, she married Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk.

They went on to have 3 children, one of which, Lady Frances, went on to marry Henry Grey.

They had three daughters, the elder of which was Lady Jane Grey, who went on to be the nine days Queen in 1553.

Mary died on the 25th of June 1533 at the age of 37.She was interred in St Mary's church, Bury St Edmunds, in Suffolk.

To secure better relations with Spain, Henry arranged for his eldest son and heir, Arthur Prince of wales, to marry Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Fernando V, King of Spain and Isabel, Queen of Castile.

The betrothal was made when the young princess was just three years old,and the prince only two.

Their marriage took place on the 14th November 1501. However it lasted only five months as Arthur died during an epidemic at Ludlow Castle in Shropshire, on the 2 April 1502.

Arthur Prince of Wales was interred at Worcester Cathedral, and as was the custom at that time, neither his mother, Elisabeth nor his wife Catherine were in attendence.

His father the King did not attend either, it is said he was too distressed.

King Henry, still keen to develope a strong bond with Spain,arranged for his second son, Henry to marry the widowed Catherine.

The death of the Prince of wales was to herald the reign of one of Britains most imfamous monarchs, when his brother Henry took the crown in 1509, after King Henry VII died of tuberculosis in May of that year, and was later interred at Westminster Abbey. 

   

    King Henry VIII. 

 Henry was born on the 28 of June 1491, at Greenwich Palace, the second son of King Henry VII and Lady Elisabeth York .Imfamous as the king who had six wives and fathered three monarchs, none of which left heirs.

King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon were married on the 11 June 1509, after a papal dispensation allowed the widowed, Catholic Katherine to marry the brother of her dead husband.This was granted after Katherine proclaimed her marriage to Arthur had never been consummated owing to the prince's ill health.

Catherine had many pregnancies during her 24 year marriage to the King,giving birth to six babies, with only one surviving ,Mary born on the 18 February 1516.

Although Henry was a devoted and dutiful husband to Katherine he became evermore frustrated at the lack of a male heir.

This lead to the annulment of their marriage in 1533.

Katherine was seperated from her daughter and forced to leave court. She died three years later in Kimbolton Castle Huntingdonshire, on 7 January 1536.and was buried in Peterborough Cathedral, under her new title ' The Princess Dowager '.

Henry's second wife was Anne Boleyn, former lady in waiting to Queen Katherine.

They married secretly on the 25 January 1533.

Anne gave birth to one child during their three year marriage, Elisabeth, born on the 7 September 1533.

Their marriage ended after Anne, rightly or wrongly was accused of adultery. She was executed privately, on the 19 May 1536.

She was interred in an unmarked site in the Chapel Royal of St Peter Ad Vincula, in the Tower of london/.

Henry's third wife was Jane Seymour, whom he had been conducting an affair with for some time.and like Anne before her, had been a lady in waiting to Queen Catherine.

Their formal betrothal of marriage was made just 24 hours after the execution of Anne Boleyn, and they married ten days later on the 30 of May 1536.

Jane produced Henry with his long awaited male heir, when Prince Edward VI was born on the 12th October 1537.

Sadly Jane died twelve days after the birth, and after only five months of marriage, on the 24th of October. She was interred in St Georges Chapel at Windsor Castle, and is the only one of Henry's six wives to be buried along side him.

                                                     

 The Tower of London and Tower Bridge.

Henry's fourth marriage was a marrriage of convenience with Anne of Cleeves, born 22nd of September 1515.

They were married on the 6th January 1540, two years after the death of Jane Seymour and the birth of his heir Prince Edward.

But Henry was not happy with the union. It would appear that Henry found his new bride wholly unattractive, even going as far as calling her 'The Flanders Mare'.

Their marriage was annulled after just seven months.

Anne was given the title 'King's Sister' and Hever Castle in her divorce settlement, where she apparantly lived quite happilly until her death on 16th July 1557.

She is interred in Westminster Abbey.

Henry's fifth wife was Kathryn Howard, born in 1521, making her just nineteen years old, and Henry forty nine.

As with previous wives Kathryn had been a lady in waiting,but this time to Anne of Cleeves.

Within a year of this union, rumours were rife over Kathryns promiscuity and infidelity.

As these findings were deemed correct Kathryn was executed at Tower Green on the 13th of February 1542, and laid to rest beside her cousin Anne Boleyn, in the chapel of St Peter ad Vincula, in the Tower of london.

Henry's sixth wife was Katherine Parr, born in 1512 who was named after Henry's first wife, Katherine of Aragon.

The twice widowed Katherine married Henry on the 12th July 1543.

The union was to last just two and a half years, when Ketherine was widowed on the 28th of January 1547.

Within months of Henry's death Katherine was to marry Thomas Seymour.

At the age of 37 and on her fourth marriage, Katherine became pregnant for the first time in her life.

She gave birth to a girl, Mary, on August 30th 1548.

Katherine was to fall ill with puerperal fever *, which claimed her life on the 5th of September 1548.

She was interred at Sudeley Castle in Gloucestershire.

   

   Henry Fitzroy Blount.

Henry also had one recognised illigitimate son, by his teenage mistress, Elisabeth Blount.

Henry Fitzroy Blount,who was given the title of first Duke of Richmond and Somerset, was born on the 1st June 1519, and died at the age of only 17 on the 23rd of July 1536, apparantly from tuberculosis.

Henry was left disconsolate by his death.

As a young man Henry was sporty and athletic, but was to become obese through a leg injury in his later years. He also suffered from gout,leg ulcers, and what is now know to be,grade II diabetes.

This brought on his premature death at the age of 55, after a 38 year rule.

He died on the 28th of January 1547, the day which would have been his father's 90th birthday had he been alive, at the Palace of Whitehall.

He was interred at St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle, alongside his third wife, Jane Seymour.

    

   King Edward VI.

Edward VI was born on the 12th of October 1537.Son of King Henry VIII and his third wife Jane Seymour.

The King's jubilance in securing his first male heir however was shortlived,with the death of Jane from Puerperal Fever * twelve days after the birth.

Edward came to the throne on the death of his father in January 1547, at the age of nine.He was crowned on the 20th of February of that year, becoming King of England and Ireland, and Englands first Protestant King.

Edward became terminally ill in 1553,at the age of fifteen, thus spurring his council to draw up a 'Devise for succession', in an attempt to prevent Catholic backlash against Protestant reform.

Edward named his cousin Lady Jane Grey as his successor and heir, excluding both his half sisters, Catholic Mary and Protestant Elisabeth.

Edward died on the 6th July 1553, from tuberculosis, at greenwich Palace.

He was buried alongside his grandfather, Henry VII in Westminster Abbey on the 8th of August.

       

      Lady Jane Grey, the nine days queen.

Edward VI's decision to name as his successor the Lady Jane Grey,culminated into one of the most tragic tales of the British monarchy.

Lady Jane Grey was born in Bradgate Park, Leicestershire, eldest daughter of Henry Grey, Marquis of Dorset and Lady Frances Brandon, in October 1537.

Through her mother she was the grand-daughter of King Henry VII and grand neice of Henry VIII.

She had two sisters, Lady Catherine Grey and Lady Mary Grey.

After a sad and lonely childhood at the hands of her abusive mother,Jane was sent to be the ward of Catherine Seymour, Henry VIII's widow, at the age ot ten.

Whilst there she was betrothed to Guildford Dudley the fourth son of John Dudley the 1st Duke of Northumberland.

The Duke was the most poweful political figure in the country and staunch Protestant.

Jane married Guildford on the 21st of May 1553, at Durham House, in a triple wedding along with her sister Catherine, who married the Earl of Pembroke, and Catherine Guildford who married Henry Hastings.

The true and rightful heir to the throne, Mary Tudor, chose Jane to be one of her first victims of the suppression of Protestantism, by using Jane's father's involvement in the Wyatt Rebellion,to have Jane and her husband wrongfully charged with high treason.

Their trial was on the 13th of November 1553 at the Guildhall in london.They were both tried and found guilty, and put to death, and held in the Tower of London.

On the 12th of February 1554,Dudley was executed at a public execution, followed by Jane at a private execution.

They were both buried together in the chapel of St Peter ad Vincula at the Tower of London.

She has been posthumously regarded as a political martyr.

     

   Queen Mary I

Queen Mary 1st was the fourth Tudor monarch, and first Queen Regnant of England.

She was the first child of King Henry VIII and only surviving child of Catherine of Aragon.

She was born on the 18th of February 1516.

She is remembered mostly for restoring England back to Catholocism,after the two short reigns of her half brother King Edward VI and her cousin Lady Jane Grey.

During her reign she had over 300 religious dissidents burned at the stake in the Marian Persecutions, earning her the title,' Bloody Mary'

At the age of 37, she married Prince Phillip of Spain, their marriage took place at Winchester Cathedral on the 25th of July 1554.

Upon the abdication of her father-in-law in 1556, Mary became Queen of Spain, Naples and Jerusalem, as well as Queen of England.

During her marriage she was to suffer two phantom pregnancies, because of the disgrace that this caused at that time, Mary's mental health began to suffer, leading in turn to physical health problems.

Mary died aged 42 from a supposed pituatury tumour, at St James's Palace, on the 17th of November 1558.

She died childless leaving no heirs.

She was interred at Westminster Abbey.

    

    Queen Elisabeth I at her coronation.

Princess Elisabeth was born on the 7th of September 1533, at greenwich Palace.She was the second daughter to King Henry VIII and the only child of his second wife Anne Boleyn.

At the age of 2 1/2 Elisabeth was declared illegitimate after her father had his marriage to Queen Anne annulled, just before her execution.

Her father died when she was 13, in 1547. The king's widow, Catherine, upon marrying Thomas Seymour, took the young princess into their household.

It was whilst Elisabeth was there, that it is thought that she was sexually abused by Seymour, leading to Elisabeth's dislike of men, sex and marriage.

Becouse of her half sister Mary's determination to crush the Protestant faith, of which Elisabeth had been schooled, Mary had Elisabeth imprisoned in the Tower of London.After her interrogation, where she was wrongfully accused of playing a part in the Wyatt Rebellion, Elisabeth was put under house arrest for a year, under the wardship of Henry Bedingfield, of Woodstock.

On the 17th of April 1555 Elisabeth was recalled to court, by Mary's husband Prince Philip of Spain.

Mary was apparantly pregnant, and Philip feared the outcome should Mary and her child die, leaving the British throne without an heir.

This time Mary was to recover, but in 1558 Mary was to fall ill for the last time.The now King Philip of Spain, sent advisors to Elisabeth to organise her government and talked Mary into recognising Elisabeth as her heir and successor.

On the 15th of January 1559, at the age of 25, Elisabeth was crowned Queen of England at Westminster Abbey.

As England's second Protestant monarch, she was received rapturously by the people, and given the title, ' Good Queen Bess'.

Elisabeth was robust of health and a dutiful queen,however she remained unmarried without any heirs, giving her yet another title, that of the ' Virgin Queen'.

Her health remained good until the Autumn of 1602 when she lost a number of good friends, and lapsed into a deep depression.Her meloncholy was to affect her physical health, and she eventually died on the 24th of March 1603, at Richmond Palace, after having been queen of England and Ireland for 45 years.

Her funeral at Westminster Abbey on the 28th of April was to end the 118 year Tudor Royal Dynasty, which had consisted of six monarchs,and paved the way for her successor, King James I , first Stuart monarch.

* Puerperal Fever otherwise known as Childbed Fever is an infection that goes on to cause septaceamia and is contracted by women after childbirth.It claimed the lives of thousands of women in olden times, but is successfully treated with the use of antibiotics today.

FOR ALL OTHER BRITISH MONARCHY TIMELINES, VISIT -  timelines-of-the-british-monarchy-1066-2010

                                                                                      

                         

 

                                                       © D.B.Bellamy. April 2010. 

                                                 OTHER ARTICLES IN THIS SERIES  

       the-norman-dynasty-a-family-history  

       the-plantagenet-dynasty-a-family-history-part-one  

       the-plantagenet-dynasty-a-family-history-part-two 

       the-royal-house-of-lancaster-a-family-history 

       the-royal-house-of-york-a-family-history

       the-stuart-dynasty-a-family-history 

       the-royal-house-of-hanover-a-family-history 

       the-royal-house-of-windsor-a-family-history

                                                        Images courtesy of wikimedia commons.

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  • Answer sample tests and reviewers. Lots of them. The LET is a board exam, and like all board exams, it has a test bank or inventory of questions. This means that more often than not, a lot of test items have already appeared in past examinations, and some appear in every examination. There are a lot of reviewers you can choose from, but I suggest picking those by Philippine Normal University (PNU) professors. (They’re the ones who draft the test questions) Answering sample tests, complete with answer sheets, also serves as practice for you in test-taking especially in terms of managing your time and in shading circles.
  • Ask for help. Maybe you’re a fresh graduate, maybe you’ve been teaching for some years already. No matter, reviewing is always much easier and more fun when you have someone to help you. That someone could be a co-teacher, a department head, a former professor or an entire class of reviewees. The point is, if you come across a topic you can’t put your finger on, or an interpretation you need to clarify, someone’s there to answer your questions. This will save you some research time, and earn you more tips and information, too.
  • Make a cheat sheet. I’m not talking about a cheater's sheet or kodigo, of course. With all the information you need to remember, and all the addenda you have written on your notebooks, sometimes the most basic can get lost. Write down all your mnemonics, definitions and formula on small-sized paper or index cards. Bring your cheat sheet along with you wherever you go, so you can easily take a peek for a quick review.
  • Exercise your HOTS. With 600 questions, you might be tempted to think that the best way to go is through memorization. But the LET is also designed to test your HOTS—higher order thinking skills. There are test questions that will require your powers of analysis. Practice analyzing quotations and short situational studies and drawing generalizations from your analysis. For Professional Education where majority of the questions are on learning theories, mnemonics won’t be enough. To make analysis easier, choose one situation or object, and apply the theories on that. When you encounter a question on a theory, all you’ll have to do is think of that situation or object. Example: If a teacher saw a student sleeping in class, what would she do if she believes in (insert philosophy of education)?
  • Rest before the big day. Prepare everything a week before the big day so you’ll have no worries and errands bothering you. Buy the things you need such as pencils and envelopes, and even the snacks you will bring along with you. Have the clothes you will wear ready and hanging in your closet already. The temptation to study right to the very last hour before the exam will be strong—but fight it! No more studying at least three days before exam day. Do recreational activities like watching a movie or taking a stroll in the park.
  • On exam day itself—stay calm! Why is it that even graduates from reputable schools sometimes fail the LET? Maybe they panicked or they were overconfident. Moderation is the key, so feel confident about the things you studied and stay calm even if you don’t know the answer to the very first question. Read the question carefully and look at all the options before answering. Always check the time to make sure you have enough time to answer all questions. And also, check if you’re shading the right circle under the right number.

*photo by Arjun Kartha

A Teacher's Guide: Tips on Writing an Organized Five Paragraph Essay

As a teacher of elementary and middle school students, one hurdle is teaching the skills to write an organized five paragraph essay. While there are many different methods to choose from, there is a simple formula that can be applied every time.

As a teacher of elementary and middle school students, one hurdle is teaching the skills to write an organized five paragraph essay.  While there are many different methods to choose from, there is a simple formula that can be applied every time.  By creating a strong thesis statement, using a graphic organizer, and implementing the introduction-body-conclusion format, your students can produce a well written five paragraph essay for any writing assignment.

The Thesis Statement is the backbone of any well written essay. As defined by Webster's Online Dictionary; "A thesis statement is the main point that is to be proven by an essay. Usually backed up by examples, the thesis statement is the theme of that whole piece."  By dividing the thesis statement into three parts, you have effectively mapped out the three body paragraphs of the essay.  This is often referred to as a 'three-prong' thesis statement.  Each 'prong' or point mentioned in the thesis identifies the the topic sentence of one of the three body paragraphs.  For example; If you are writing about soccer, your thesis statement might read like this: 'Commitment, strategy, and team work are important elements of a winning soccer team.' With this one sentence, you have told the reader that the main ideas of your body paragraphs are commitment to the sport, strategy of the game, and the importance of team work.

Once you have established a strong thesis statement, it is important to organize your thoughts and any supporting information.  One of the most effective ways to do this is by using a graphic organizer.  A good graphic organizer is simple yet effective, providing space for the writer to list all the facts relevant to their chosen topic.  It provides a visual map to follow while writing the final essay.  The most effective graphic organizers use shapes such as circles or squares, connected with lines to show the flow of information.  It is important to remember that many students will need multiple copies of the graphic organizer as mistakes will be made.  In addition to the thesis statement, and supporting details, the graphic organizer should help to organize the opening and closing thoughts.  Remember that people usually remember the first and last thing that they read from any document. 

As the author, it is important to grab the reader's attention with a strong attention getter or 'hook'.  The most common attention getter is the question.  'Have you ever wondered what it takes to be a valued player on an amazing soccer team?'  Another effective way to get the readers attention is to create a mental image that the reader can become part of.  'Crisp morning air whipped at my face, the smell of fresh cut grass in the air.  Focus!  Focus!  Tom takes the ball.  He is dribbling toward me, his feet moving fast.  I center myself, ready and waiting.  He passes!  With one swift kick, I send the ball sailing passed the goalie to score the first point of the game!'  The introduction of any writing assignment should begin with an attention getter, and once the reader's interest has been piqued, it is important to keep it.  The introduction should tell the reader some basic information about the topic and then finish with the thesis statement. The following body paragraphs should give facts to support the three main points mentioned in the thesis statement.  One paragraph dedicated to each point will create the three necessary body paragraphs.  Each body paragraph should have a topic sentence, at least three supporting facts or details, and a closing sentence.  The final paragraph of the essay is the conclusion.  This is where you need to 'sum up' the information given in the body.  One way to create a solid conclusion is to restate what is said in the introduction.  Take the basic information, and even the thesis statement, and rewrite it.  Be sure to include reasons why the information is important or helpful.  Make the reader feel that their time was well spent.  After completing the written assignment, it is important to remember to edit, edit, edit!  A well written essay can be ruined by too many mistakes in grammar and sentence structure. 

As a teacher, is is important to give students the strongest foundation for writing possible.  Using the simple formula based on the three-prong thesis statement will give them a pattern to use with any writing assignment.  By teaching them to use a graphic organizer to organize their thoughts and information before writing, the process becomes much easier.  And, of course, following the standard five paragraph format will ensure that they are prepared for assignments throughout their education.

Sample Five Paragraph - Graphic Organizer:

K+12 Education in the Philippines

Review of the newly implemented K+12 Education in the Philippines.

The Enhanced K+12 Basic Education Program in the Philippines has been officially started. It has been initiated by the Aquino administration where students will have to undergo a new system of education.

This program will require all incoming students to enroll into two more years of basic education. Thus, the K+12 System will basically include the Universal kindergarten, 6 years of elementary, 4 years of junior high school with an additional 2 years for senior high school.

Moreover, the program aims to uplift the quality of education in the Philippines in order for graduates to be easily employed. The program also aims to meet the standards required for professionals who would want to work abroad.

Most importantly, the system aims to fully enhance and develop the students in order for them to be well-prepared especially in emotional and cognitive aspects. Through this, graduates will be able to face the pressures of their future workplace.

However, not all are in favor of the K+12 Education. There are students complaining of the additional years and there are parents who are not in favor of the additional expenses. But indeed, it is an undeniable fact that additional years in the education system will really require more budgets not just from the government but from the parents as well.

Aside from this, students will need additional classrooms, school supplies and facilities. The program would need more qualified teachers as well.

I personally believe that the K+12 Education in the Philippines would uplift the quality of lifestyle of the Filipino people. But, this could not be done without being prepared. And since the program has already been implemented, what is more important now is for students to do their best and study despite of the lack of facilities. Nothing is impossible when we persist.

As for teachers, continue to teach with love and love what you teach despites of your own personal triumphs and economic crisis. Always remember that the future of the students depends upon you.

As for the parents who have been doing their best in pursuing their child’s education, remember that the program aims what’s best for your children. It will help your children to become globally competitive and if your children will succeed, you will also succeed.

There may be a lot of factors to consider for the K+12 Education to succeed. But as long as we open our minds to change and we will take it on a positive way, we will definitely attain our most-aspired educational standards which will play a great role in our country’s development and will therefore, uplift us from poverty.

The Development of the Educational System in the Philippines

The educational system in the Philippines had undergone various stages of development. These stages of educational evolution can be traced way back from the Pre-Spanish period, to the Spanish Period, to the American period, to the Commonwealth and the Japanese period going to the present.

The educational system in the Philippines had undergone various stages of development. These stages of educational evolution can be traced way back from the Pre-Spanish period, to the Spanish Period, to the American period, to the Commonwealth and the Japanese period going to the present.

There is no definite information about the system of education in the Philippines during the Pre-Spanish period.

According to the history, the Philippine education had manifested in the culture of the people. However, there are no definite records that were available showing the types of schools that were established by the natives, as well as on the subjects or methods that they used.

There were Written and Oral literatures but all of the records that were written were accordingly destroyed by the Spanish colonizers; this was because they believed that those written records in literature were works of devils.

Some of the Oral literatures have been preserved until today and these are in the forms of proverbs, songs, maxims, epics, as well as in the forms of various tales and religious or criminological codes. There were also little knowledge in astronomy and engineering.

During the Spanish period, an educational decree was passed in an attempt to reform the educational system in the Philippines. Included in the decree are the establishments of complete secondary as well as collegiate levels, as well as the establishment of teacher-training institutions.

During the American period, a system of public education was established. The system was patterned after the American educational system. The Colleges and Universities that were organized during the time of the Spanish were continued. The programs of studies were revised; adapting the changes of time.

During the Commonwealth period and Japanese occupation, the curricula in the elementary as well as in the secondary schools were revised. Among of developments in education during the Commonwealth period were the re-orientation of educational plans and policies to carry out the educational mandate of the constitution, the revision of the elementary and secondary school curricula to carry out the objectives of education embodied in the constitution and many more.

Today, the Philippine education is patterned from the state school system of the United States. The education establishments comprised of the private schools that are owned and manage by private individuals or corporations and the public schools that are owned and manage by the state.

According to the history, the Philippine education evolves from its simple beginning and was shaped by foreign influences.

Objective Tests: Guidelines for Writing Matching Type and Multiple-Choice Questions

In a matching test, there are usually two columns of items. For each item in one column, the students are required to select a correct item. The basic form of the multiple-choice item is lead, which defines the problem to be completed by one of a number of alternatives are referred to as "distractors." In most cases four or five alternatives are given.
                    multiple choice and matching type

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Matching Type Questions

These are used to measure the learners' thinking at the lower levels of knowledge and comprehension. They are relatively easy to construct and can be corrected quickly. In a matching test, there are usually two columns of items. For each item in one column, the students are required to select a correct item. The items may be names, concepts, places, phrases or events.

To discourage guessing, the teacher should put more responses on the right-hand column than the left-hand column. It is important that the entire test appears on the same page so that the learners will not turn the page back and forth when searching for the right answer.

One problem of matching test is that it often requires recall rather than comprehension and more sophisticated levels of thinking. Higher levels of cognition may be called for in matching questions that involves analogies, cause and effect, complex relationships, and theories, but such items are hard to construct.

Guidelines for Writing Matching Questions

  • The directions should be brief and clear indicating the basis for matching items in column A with items in column B.
  • The entire matching question should appear on a single page. Running the question on two pages is confusing and distracting for students.
  • Wording of items in column A should be shorter than those in column B. This permits students to scan the test question quickly.
  • Column A should contain no more than 10 test items; 5 or 6 items are ideal. Longer lists confuse students.
  • There should be more alternatives in column B than there are items in column A to prevent answering the last one or two items by simple elimination. Column B should contain 6 or 7 items if column A contains 5. A list of 10 items in column A should be accompanied by about 12 items in column B.
  • Column A items should be numbered, as they will be graded as individual questions, and column B items should be lettered.
  • Column A items should be presented in a logical order, say alphabetically or chronologically (but not one that gives away the answer), so the student can scan them quickly in search for correct answers.
  • Items in both columns should be similar in terms of content, form, grammar, and length. Dissimilar alternatives in column B result in irrelevant clues that can be used to eliminate items or guess answers by the test-wise student.
  • Negative statements (in either column) should be avoided.

Many multiple-choice questions can be converted into a matching test.

Multiple-Choice Questions

These are the most popular objective test items, especially at the secondary level. Some students think it is fun to answer because they see the task almost as a puzzle, putting piece together, doing easy pieces first and saving the hard piece for last. The basic form of the multiple-choice item is lead, which defines the problem to be completed by one of a number of alternatives are referred to as "distractors." In most cases four or five alternatives are given.

This type of test has the capacity to test not only knowledge and comprehension but also some higher level thinking abilities. They can be adapted to a variety of subject matter content and they can be scored easily.

Guidelines for Writing Multiple-Choice Questions

  • The central issue or problem should be stated in the stem. It should be a singular statement, topic, or problem.
  • In the stem, a direct question is preferable to an incomplete statement.
  • Include in the stem any words that might otherwise be repeated in the alternative responses. This reduces wordiness in the alternatives and increases clarity in the stem.
  • Negative statements in the stem and alternatives should be avoided.
  • Use numbers to label stems and letters to label alternatives.
  • Avoid absolute terms (always, never or none), especially in the alternatives; a test-wise person usually avoids answers that include them.
  • Avoid using items directly from the text or workbook, since this practice encourages memorization.
  • Arrange alternatives in some logical order, for example, alphabetically or chronologically.
  • Alternatives should be parallel in content, form length, and grammar. Avoid making the correct alternative different from wrong alternatives: longer or shorter, more precisely stated, having a part of speech others lack.
  • Correct responses should be in random order. Do not use one particular letter more often than others or create a pattern for the placement of correct responses.
  • Alternative responses should be plausible to less knowledgeable students.
  • The alternatives "All of the above" and "None of the above" should be used sparingly, since the test writer may fail to take into consideration all the nuances in the choices or the test taker may see other nuances.

Common Problems in Elementary Education

Elementary education also known as primary education plays a vital role in teaching students the basic of academic essentials. However, there are also problems with school systems that can hinder learning.

Elementary education prepares and introduces students to the very foundation of academic essentials. It is here where they receive a general education such as writing, reading, math, science, social studies and history. In this level of education, students are comprehensively trained for high school level and college curriculum. And as grade level advances, learning methods and materials intensify even more. Elementary education also known as primary educations is advantageous to students, however, there are some problems with elementary schooling that exist within the system.

Learning Method

Teachers in elementary education have a fixed method of transmitting learning information to students. In other words, the coursework is fixed. Teachers will teach in a manner that is effective and appeals to majority of his students. But this method won’t work effectively for other students who have their own unique learning style. Some students can learn and understand the lessons by merely listening to their teacher’s lecture. On the other hand, there are also some students who can only fully understand the lessons if teachers will use a visual learning method. A fixed teaching method and materials are presented and put into practice by most elementary school teachers that is why students will not always have the privilege to learn in a manner that is most comfortable for them.

Budget Issue

The quality of learning in elementary education suffers because of limited academic budget. Lack of appropriate and enough school budgets will have an impact on school’s spending. The school will be incapable of providing students the suitable learning materials and tools, new technology, new or renovated classrooms, furniture and other resources. If classrooms are limited, it follows then that the number of students per class will grow in size and the teacher in charge will not be able to manage them all. This will eventually lead to a poor teaching quality. This is so because teachers will find it difficult to give adequate and individualized attention to his students.

Standardized Test

Students are given the standardized tests to rank them academically. This has become teacher’s primary concern of improving their scores and they are prioritizing this one. They take time out of their actual lessons to concentrate on teaching their students how to answer a multiple choice questions and how to relax and stay calm when taking the test. The teacher’s focus on standardized test distracts and disregards the lessons that he is supposed to teach.